(धनबाद) is a city of Jharkhand. Dhanbad is also the administrative headquarter of Dhanbad district and Dhanbad Municipal Corporation (DMC).
Dhanbad comes under Chota-Nagpur plateau. Today, Dhanbad is a vibrant city that is witnessing an economic boom and is among the top 100 fastest growing cities of World (given in a report of International Institute for Environment and Development, a UK-based policy research non-governmental body, released in 2007).According to 2001 census, Dhanbad is among 35 cities of India.
It is mainly known as the 'Coal Capital of India' or 'Coal City' & is the Third largest city in Jharkhand state.
Dhanbad Comes under Grand Chord rail line in between Delhi to kolkata.In terms of Road Link it is on Grand Trunk road (NH-2)which is now converted into Four Lane Golden Quadrilateral. Indian Government is converting this Four Lane Golden Quadrilateral into Six lane Expressway from Dhanbad to Kolkata.
Tata Steel has set up mines in the area. Coal washing and coke making are the main coal related industry in the city.
Other major companies having a presence in the mining activities of this city are: IISCO (Indian Iron And Steel Company), BCCL (Bharat Coking Coal Ltd). BCCL a subsidiary of the CIL (Coal India Ltd) is the largest operator of steel mines in this area and has open cast mines as well as underground mines, whereas Tata Steel has mostly underground mines.
These companies have developed townships for its employees containing roads, water, power and sanitation facilities.
Dhanbad is located at . It has an average elevation of . Its geographical length, extending from North to South, is 43 miles and breadth, 47 miles, stretching across East to West. It shares its boundaries with West-Bengal in the Eastern and southern part, Dumka & Giridih in the North,Bokaro in the west. Dhanbad comes under Chota-Nagpur Plateau. Summer starts from last week of March and ends in mid June. Peak temperature in Summer goes up to 47 degree Celsius. Dhanbad also receives heavy rainfall. Up to September it receives 1418 mm of rainfall. In Winter season the temperature does not dip much, minimum temperature remains around 12 degree Celsius and a maximum of 22 degree Celsius. Damodar is the main river flowing across the District. Katri and Jamunia are the other river flowing through the district.
The early history of the Dhanbad is shrouded in mystery . Details of even later periods are difficult to trace as the present district formed but a small and insignificant part of Manbhum
. In the Settlement Report for Manbhum (1928) it has been stated that no rock inscriptions, copper plates or old coins were discovered and not a single document of copper plate or palm leaf was found in course of the Survey and Settlement operations. The oldest authentic documents produced were all on paper and barely even a hundred years old.
After setting up steel plant at Jamshedpur, Tata Steel started Coal mines at Dhanbad in 1909. These Coal Mines were at Jamadoba, Malkera and some other places of Dhanbad. Some of these coal mines were closed during World wars.
Dhanbad was in West Bengal till 1956. However, on 24.10.56, Dhanbad was declared a District on the Recommendation of the States Reorganization Commission vide notification 1911. And from 1956 to 14-11-2000 it was under Bihar. At present it is in Jharkhand, after the creation of state on 15-11-2000.
As of 2001
, Dhanbad had a population of 2,394,434. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Dhanbad has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 79% and, female literacy is 68%. In Dhanbad, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. Majority of the population are people of Jharkhand and Bihar. Besides them Bengali's are also in large number. Followed by Marwari's and Punjabi. Many people of eastern Uttar Pradesh has also settled in Dhanbad.
Dhanbad is the Headquarter of the District and also the Headquarter of DMC. Dhanbad Municipal Corporation (DMC) was formed as per the State Government Notification dated 1/02/06 with merger of areas Jharia NAC, Sindri
NAC, Chhatandh NAC, Katras NAC. Dhanbad city elects one Member of Parliament. also some part of the city comes under Giridih seat of Lok Sabha. From Dhanbad there are six Legislative assembly seat; they are Sindri, Baghmara, Dhanbad, Jharia, Nirsa, Tundi.
Dhanbad city has District court and Labour Court-Industrial tribunal. Along with Mumbai, Dhanbad is the only city having Two Labour Court-Industrial tribunals. Mineral Area Development Authority (MADA) looks after the development of the district.
Dhanbad is famous for its coal
mines and industrial establishments;it has 112 coal mines with a total produce of 27.5 Million Tonnes and a annual income of 7000 Million Rupees through coal business, because of this, it has been called the "Coal Capital" of India and the "City of Coal". There are also number of Coal Washeries present here. This city is also Known for its power generation plants. Hydel power is being generated at Maithan and Panchet. TATA POWER and DVC are setting up 1050 MW Thermal power plant. ONGC is using CBM (Coal beded Methane) for power generation at some Coal mines. ACC cement factory is situated at industrial town Sindri. Sindri is also one of the oldest industrial Town of independent India, developed during 1953-54. Project Development India Limited (PDIL) is also present at Sindri.
Companies like TATA STEEL , SAIL , BCCL, DVC , ACC are doing business here for along time now.Dhanbad is also a Rail Division under East Central Railway.Under this rail division CIC(Central India Chord)section comes.It is the second largest revenue generating Division of Indian Railway. Dhanbad will also come under Indian Railway freight Corridor.
Education and research
The Indian School of Mines
, located in Dhanbad, draws students from all over India through, as well as some other countries through IIT JEE. Jharkhand Government's only Engineering College is in Dhanbad(Sindri),known as Birsa Institute of Technology (BIT, Sindri). Dhanbad has one Medical College, Patliputra Medical college and hospital (PMCH). Apart from This there are many colleges.
1. Adarsh College, Rajdhanwar
2. B S K College, Maithan, Dhanbad
3. Katras College, Katrasgarh, Dhanbad
4. P K Roy Memorial College, Dhanbad
5. R S P College, Jharia, Dhanbad
6. R S More College, Govindpur
7. S S L N T M College, Dhanbad
8. Sindri College, Sindri
9. B B M College, Baliapur, Dhanbad
10. B P S B Workers Memorial College, Dhanbad
11. B S S Mahila College, Dhanbad
12. Baghmara College, Baghmara, DHANBAD
13. Coalfield College, Bhaga, Dhanbad
14. Dhanbad Law College, Dhanbad
15. Gurunanak College, Dhanbad
16. J M College, Bhurkunda
17. Koilanchal S G Memorial College, Nirsa (Dhanbad)
18. Mahuda College, Mahuda
19. P N Memorial Colege, Gomoh
20. Rajgani College, Rajganj
21. S H S M College, Kumardubi, Dhanbad
The Central Mining Research Institute (CMRI), and the Central Fuel Research Institute (CFRI), both of which are controlled by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), are located in the area. Now They are merged and renamed as Central Institute for Mining and Fuel Research (CIMFR).
Schools of CBSE, ICSE and Jharkhand State Board are present. There are many schools in Dhanbad. DAV has many schools in different parts of the city. Apart from this DeNobili , Carmel, Dps, Doon Public School, Rajkamal, Indian school of Learning and kendriya vidyalaya are also present.
For moving across the city, modes of transport are Auto-Rickshaw, Taxis and Rickshaws. Private and State Buses are available for inter-city traveling. NH-2 and NH-32 passes through Dhanbad. NH-2 is now converted into Golden Quadrilateral(GQ). Golden Quadrilateral starts from Kolkata and ends at Delhi, NH-32 connects Govindpur to Purulia.
In terms of Railways Dhanbad has the best connectivity with the other parts of the country among all cities of Jharkhand. Dhanbad comes under East-Central Rail zone. Grand-Chord line passes through Dhanbad junction, it connects Howrah and NewDelhi. CIC rail line starts from Dhanbad and ends at singrauli. There is one more rail line passing through the district,it starts at Kharagpur and ends at Gomoh, this rail line comes under South-Eastern Railway. Dhanbad is Connected with almost all states through rail network,
Currently there is no Air-link.
Media and Sports
Hindi newspaper are mainly published from the city, among them Dainik Jagran and Prabhat Khabar are the notable ones. Tv station is also present in Dhanbad. No FM channels are available till now. Commercial radio channel Worldspace is available. In most of the places in Dhanbad, Cable TV is popular, operated by the Local Operators. DTH of all major companies are available. In terms of cinema, shooting of Bengali movies are done at Topchanchi. A documentry movie on Jharia "Hot as Hell" has been made recently.
Cricket is the most popular sports in Dhanbad, followed by football. Dhanbad is one of the centre were National Games will be organised. Cricket Stadium is present at Digwadih and Jealgora were Ranji trophy matches are organised. Football matches of national level are played at Railway Stadium and sijua Stadium.
Places of interest
- The Lake at Maithon is spread in area of 65 sq. Km. Boating is available here. A Bird Sanctuary and Deer park is also present near this place. From Dhanbad Railway Station, the distance is 45 Km.
Kalyaneswari Temple - This temple of Maa Kalyaneswari is very close to Maithon.
Topchanchi Lake - This lake is a very famous Picnic spot. Situated at Golden quadrilateral, 37 km from Dhanbad railway station. This lake is surrounded by green hills of Parasnath and forest.
Bhatinda Fall - The Waterfall is near munidih, 14 km from Dhanbad railway station. Surrounded by greenery, this place draws lot of crowd specially in winter.
Panrra - Panra is near Nirsa. This place has derived its name fron Pandavas. According to local pandavas spent some time here during there exile. A temple of Pandeshwar mahadev is also present.
Shakti Mandir - Shakti mandir is situated in the main city. Temple of Goddess Durga draws large crowd through out the year.
Lillori-sthan Mandir - An ancient temple of Goddess Kali is present here. Situated on the bank of river katri. This Place is 19 km from Dhanbad Railway station.
Chark- khurd - This place is famous for hot spring. It is in tundi.
Gopalpur - Situated in Nirsa. This place contains ancient structures built during the period of emperor Ashoka. A large stone image of emperor Ashok is also present here.
Panchet - Around 54 km from Dhanbad Railway station. Beautiful place having a dam. Very famous Picnic spot.