(also known as Oratorical Declamation or Oratorical Interpretation, commonly abbreviated to "dec") is a public speaking event of the National Catholic Forensic League
. One can qualify for the annual NCFL Grand National Tournament in Declamation through their local qualifying tournament. The category is almost always open to freshmen and sophomores only; it is often used as a "starter" event to get underclassmen used to the speech and debate activity in general and to prepare them for other categories such as Dramatic Performance
or Original Oratory
In simplest terms, Declamation is the delivering of a speech that was written and delivered by another person. A competitor may choose any speech that was once delivered in public. NCFL rules call for specific introductory material and a ten-minute time limit. The NCFL is the largest league in the United States that offers Declamation as a category for competition; most local and state leagues adhere to NCFL rules or slight variations on them.
From the official NCFL critique sheet (see link below):
- "The speaker should convey the message in a sincere, honest and realistic attempt to recreate the spirit of the original presentation. Although the style of delivery chosen by the speaker should be judged in light of the purpose of the speech, artificiality is to be discredited. The message should conveyed credibly and convincingly as if the words were the speaker’s own. This event is an interpretation, not an impersonation."
Therefore, the purpose of the category is not to give an impersonation of the original speaker; it is to interpret their words in an interesting and convincing manner that fits the individual competitor. The competitor is only required to recreate the general "feel" of the original delivery, not mimic it.
- "The introduction must name the work and author, provide necessary background
- information and establish the mood."
- "The speaker should be physically open to the audience and use body language that
- invites the audience into the world of the declaimer. The speaker should vary facial expression to
- accentuate the natural flow of thoughts and feelings. The speaker should make eye contact with the
- audience. The speaker’s stance should be erect and controlled, without distracting movements. Movement,
- if used, should be motivated by transitions in thought or mood. Gestures should be visible, effectively
- used for emphasis, and varied."
The Theodore Gibson Oratorical, Declamation and Advocacy Project
A joint venture of Miami Dade College and Miami Dade County Public Schools in Miami, Florida, the Project began in 1977 and is dedicated to exposing school children to the wide breadth of writings about the Black experience throughout the Diaspora. The Project seeks to provide an opportunity for school children in grades pre-K through high school to discover and refine public speaking skills through a comprehensive and challenging level of learning and competition.
The Project is an in person oratory, declamation and advocacy oral presenation of persuasive or inspirational material of literary merit prepared by another person; the advocacy component being a researched problem, identified solution, and the extolled benefits or burdens of an issue in an effectively, compelling speech. The speech is memorized and each speaker allowed a minimum 3 minutes to present. Judging is based primarily on the quality of the presenatation as represented by the following evaluation criteria:
1) Intellectual Understanding: Is the structure of the selection conducive to interpretation? Does the speaker demonstrate emotional and aesthetic merit?
2) Historical/Creative Significanc: Does the selection represent a thoughtful review of the breadth of African-American, Afro-Caribbean, African, human/civil rights experienc, or creativity.
3) Vocal Variety/Contrast: Does the voice show variations in rate, speed mood? Were transitions smooth and in keeping with the total message?
4) Tempo: Were time, pauses and hesitations used properly? Were emphasis and subclimaxes acknowledged with associated rapid speech? Was the pace set in keeping with the author's intent?
5) Voice: Was their clearness, correctness, and effectiveness in choice and expression of words?
6) Vocabulary: Did speaker demonstrate a full command of the language of the piece and master complexities of vocabulary, pronunciation and context?
7) Stage Presence: Does speaker manipulate floor space appropriately to dispense the full effect of the selection? Does speaker appear comfortable and well adapted to the space?
8) Animation: Is the presentation performed appropriately to the tone of the selection? Is animation appropriate or over dramzatized?
9) Bodily Actions: Do gestures, stance and facial expression support and emphasize the verbal content of the speech, or do they detract and call forth undue attention?
10) Overall Effectiveness: Overall presentation of piece, effectiveness, articulation and stage presence.
11) Base by Jose Ariel G. Adolfo, declamation should be delivered at SAC of Cebu Normal in cooperation with Ms. Tugot the best declamer of the town.
The Project's namesake, the Reverend Canon Theodore R. Gibson, a Miami City Commissioner known for his oration and vision, made the remark that is the Project's theme: "Help the Children to Communicate...That is the Key".
The Original Oratory Controversy
The use of former Original Oratory
speeches in Declamation has become quite widespread in recent years. Some see this practice as unfair or undermining the category's original purpose, as these speeches were originally written for the purpose of winning in forensic competition, and not necessarily conveying an important message. At the beginning of 2003-2004 season, the NCFL enacted a ban on all former high school competitive oratories, effective as of the 2005 Grand National Tournament. However, at the beginning of the 2004-2005 season, the restriction was removed, and thus, the ban never truly came into effect. As of the present time, former Original Oratory speeches are allowed material in NCFL Declamation.
State and local leagues may choose to ban or allow material as they wish, however.
Recent National Champions
1995: Jim Frawley - Holy Ghost Prep - Bensalem, PA
1997: Lesley Pories - Madison - Arlington, VA
1998: Usman Akeju - Iona Preparatory School - New York
1999: Matthew Maalouf - Catholic Memorial H.S. - Boston
2000: Heidi Dixon - Plymouth H.S. - Indianapolis
2001: Michael Rugnetta - St. Joseph’s Prep - Philadelphia
2002: Ben Schwartz - Natick HS - Worcester
2003: Mauricus Lofton - Danville HS - Louisville
2004: Sarah Koch - Apple Valley HS - Winona
2005: Joe Bittlingmaier - Iona Preparatory School - New York
2006: Sal Zullo - Iona Preparatory School - New York
2007: Victoria Myrthil - St Josephs HS - New York
2007: Marvin Lucero -Marikina,Philippines
2008: Davante Lewis - Alfred Barbe High School - Lake Charles, LA