Purulia district is one of the 19 districts of West Bengal state in eastern India. Purulia town is the administrative headquarters of the district.
The territory present Purulia district comprises was a part of Banga, one of the 16 Mahajanapadas
according to Jaina Bhagavati Sutra (c. 5th century CE) and was also a part of the country known as Vajra-bhumi in ancient period. During medieval period, this territory was regarded as part of Jharkhand
region. Little is known about Purulia before the British East India Company
acquired this territory by obtaining the grant of Diwani
of the subahs
of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa in 1765.
By Regulation XVIIII of 1805, a Jungle Mahals district
composed of 23 parganas and mahals including the present Purulia (known as 'Purulia' those days) was formed. By Regulation XIII of 1833 the Jungle Mahals district was broken up and a new district called Manbhum
was constituted with headquarters at Manbazar
. The district was vey large in size and included parts of Bankura
districts of present West Bengal
state and Dhanbad
districts of present Jharkhand
states. In 1838 the district headquarters was transferred from Manbazar to Purulia
. Since the formation of the district it was withdrawn from regular administration and placed under an officer called Principal Assistant to the agent to the Governor-General for South-Western Frontier. The title of the officer Principal Agent was later changed to Deputy Commissioner by Act XX of 1854. Finally in 1956 Manbhum district was partitioned between Bihar
and West Bengal under the States Reorganization Act and the Bihar and West Bengal (Transfer of Territories) Act 1956 and the present Purulia district was born on November 1, 1956.
Purulia lies between 22.60 degrees and 23.50 degrees north latitudes and 85.75 degrees and 86.65 degrees east longitudes. The geographical area of the district is 6259 km². This district is bordered on the east by Bankura
, Paschim Medinipur
districts, on the north by Bardhaman district
of West Bengal state and Dhanbad district
state, on the west by Bokaro
districts of Jharkhand state and on the south by West Singhbhum
and East Singhbhum
districts of Jharkhand state.
Rainfall defines the climate of the district. South west monsoon is the principal source of rainfall in the district. Average annual rainfall varies between 1100 and 1500 mm. The relative humidity is high in monsoon season, being 75% to 85%. But in hot summer it comes down to 25% to 35%. Temperature varies over a wide range from 7 degrees Celsius in winter to 46.8 degrees Celsius in the summer.
Rivers and lakes
The main rivers passing through or bordering the district are Kangsabati
, Kumari, Dwarakeswar
Due to undulated topography nearly 50% of the rainfall flows away as runoff. The district is covered by mostly residual soil formed by weathering of bed rocks.
The district comprises three sub-divisions: Sadar East, Sadar West and Raghunathpur
. Purulia town is the district headquarters. There are 21 police stations, 20 development blocks, 3 municipalities, 170 gram panchayats
and 2459 inhabited villages in this district.
The 11 Vidhan Sabha constituencies and one Lok Sabha constituency are located within this district. Banduan, Manbazar, Balarampur, Arsa, Jhalda, Jaipur and Purulia Vidhan Sabha constituencies are part of the lone Lok Sabha constituency in this district, Purulia. Kashipur, Para, Hura and Raghunathpur Vidhan Sabha constituencies are part of Bankura Lok Sabha constituency.
The district has a population of 2,538,233 (as per the 2001 census) out of which 19.35% is Scheduled Caste and 19.22% is Scheduled Tribes. The literacy rates of male and female are 74.18% and 37.15% of the total population respectively.
According to the 2001 census, 83.42% of the population are Hindus, while 7.12% are Muslims.
Purulia is the westernmost district of West Bengal with an all-India significance because of its tropical location, its shape as well as function like a funnel. It funnels not only the tropical monsoon current from the Bay to the subtropical parts of north-west India, but also acts as a gateway between the developed industrial belts of West Bengal and the hinterlands in Orissa, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
Purulia is an ideal place for tourists. The undulating topography, calm serenity and nature with its prolific abundance, silence of dense forests, twittering of birds and wild life, beautiful flora and fauna, picturesque hills and hillocks, falls, rivers, rivulets and streams make this place attractive to the visitors. Thousands of tourists come to visit Purulia every year to witness the charm of the natural forests of Ayodhya, Matha and Kuilapal, falls and tribal habitations of Ajodhya Hills and Bagmundih, dams like Panchet, Murguma and Futiari, heritage building like Panchakot Raj Place, trekking range of Matha proud with Pakhi Pahar, and Joychandi Pahar, picnic spots like Duarsini, Doladanga, Jamuna, traditional folk dance and culture like Chhou Dance and Jhumur Song and so on. Purulia district is well connected by road and rail with the major cities and towns of the state as well as of the country. For its convenient location, this place has acquired an important place in the tourist map in India.
Purulia the most backward and poverty striken district of the country is yet fighting for its stabilisation.in November 1956 it joins Bengal but head and heart remains with then Bihar. Fertile Chandankiary, Industrial belt Tata, Bokaro, Chas and Lac producing Tamar- Rahe were forcible remains with Bihar. From the then Manbhoom, Man (respect) was with Bihar and Bhoom (land) comes to bengal. Though Santaldihi was an age old Thermal Power Plant but its electricity was supplied only to the Metros like Kolkata or Burdwan.
Purulia's proud remains with Ramkrishna Missionn Vidyapith. Till 1989 this institution produces 6-7 toppers of the Bengal Secondary Board uninterruptedly but from 90 with Govt's decession to make the result more democratic this proud also went away from purulia's purse.
Purulia has also a lot of fine tourist spot wchich can give you more pleasure than any other parts of the country but our writers dwellers never thought them to be saleble. Matha, Kasipur, Ayodhya hills and its adjacants areas, Murguma, Futiary, Ladhurka, Duarsini, Bhalopahar, Ramchandrapur ....... and a lot of place can win even any ones heart from abroad.
Chhou and Jhumur is the unique asset of Purulia.Bhadu and Tusu is also her own cultural antique.
greatmen like Madhusudan Dutta, Chitta ranjan Dasgupta, Subodh Basu Roy, Apurba Kr. Sanyal has spent their days here with love and respect for the land.
Dr. Ambarish Mukherjee dreamt a lot about this distrct, he was a vision to start a Lion Safari at Matha Buru but his fellow comrades only dreams to be Minister of state in the Govt. Today there is none in the district politics who can force the Allimuddin to hear them. So this land will remain barren for few more years till Our Chinees Comrades make them bound to think about it.