The heptathlon is the equivalent modern event for women, consisting of seven track-and-field events. Begun as an Olympic pentathlon in 1964, it was expanded in 1984 and now includes the long jump; the high jump; the shot put; the javelin throw; the 200- and 800-meter races; and the 100-meter hurdles. Like the decathlon, the heptathlon is held over two days. Jackie Joyner-Kersee, who dominated the heptathlon during the 1990s, is the best-known athlete in the event's relatively short history.
Traditionally, the title of "World's Greatest Athlete" has been given to the man who wins the decathlon. This began when King Gustav V of Sweden told Jim Thorpe, "You, sir, are the World's Greatest Athlete" after Thorpe won the decathlon at the Stockholm Olympics in 1912. The current holder of the title is American Bryan Clay, the gold medal winner of the event at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, who took the title from Athens Olympics champion Roman Šebrle.
The word decathlon is of Greek origin (from δέκα deka [ten] and αθλος athlos [contest]).
The modern event is a set combination of athletic disciplines, testing an individual’s speed, strength, skill, stamina, endurance, and perseverance; it includes five events on each of two successive days. The emphasis of the first day is on speed, explosive power, and jumping ability; the second emphasizes technique and endurance.
The first decathlon competition was held in just one single day, October 15 1911, in Gothenburg, Sweden. This was technically not the first decathlon, but one of the first two, as Germany also held a decathlon on the very same day. The Germans contested their events in the same order but with a different scoring table to the one in Sweden. So, the first decathlon world-record holder was the winner of the first completed meet. Karl Hugo Wieslander, a Swede, and Karl Ritter von Halt, a German, were announced world-record holders. The decathlon was added to the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm. After experience, the following order was chosen: 100 m run, long jump, shot put, high jump, and 400 m run on the first day; 110 m hurdles, discus, pole vault, javelin, and 1500 m run on the 2nd day. The Swedes also developed a set of scoring tables, based on the 1908 Olympic records. After the 1912 Stockholm Games, the tables were updated to include many new Olympic records. The 1912 Olympic decathlon has become legend because of the presence of Jim Thorpe. Thorpe had a terrific 1912 spring track season, winning as many as six events per meet. Thorpe made the U.S. Olympic team in four events: decathlon, pentathlon, high jump, and long jump. The Russian czar donated a Viking ship as a prize for the decathlon champion. Thorpe won the decathlon by almost 700 points over his closest opponent, Hugo Wieslander of Sweden. Because of the unexpected large number of entries, the decathlon was held over 3 days. The first day they held the 100 m run, long jump, and shot put. The second day consisted of the high jump, 400 m run, discus, and 110 m hurdles. The third and final day consisted of the pole vault, javelin, and 1500 m run. Thorpe’s 8412 points converts to 6564 points on the current tables, still a very respectable score three quarters of a century later. Swedes Wieslander, Charles Lomberg, and Gösta Holmér captured the next three spots. Thorpe’s score was not beaten for another 15 years. In his absence, there was little decathlon activity for the remainder of the decade. Only in Sweden was the decathlon often contested. The Swedes managed to stay neutral during World War I, which forced the cancellation of the games of Berlin in 1916. Fascinatingly, decathlons were held as part of the Far Eastern Games in 1913, 1915, 1917, and 1919. The average good decathlete competes at most three or four times a year, the less talented even fewer. Bill Toomey’s nine great efforts back in 1969 were very unusual. The decathlon is the Olympic event least commonly seen in non-Olympic meets. The decathlete does not have to be amazing in all events to be a champion in the sport itself. But he must range from adequate in his weak events to good or better in the other skills. Because he must do well in the four runs and six field events, he has little opportunity to perfect any one event. A decathlete trying to improve performance in one specific event is likely to deteriorate in another, because the physical demands of the various events are conflicting. His training is necessarily different as he strives to improve all techniques, gain strength without losing speed, and acquire the stamina to perform through a competition that lasts anywhere from 4 to 12 hours per day during the Olympics. As a reference point, a performance in the (non-decathlon) world record class would give somewhere between 1100 and 1400 points per event, totaling over 12500 points for a full record-breaking decathlon. When compared to the 6-7000 points that a good decathlete would usually get, or the world record of slightly over 9000 points, this illustrates how much specialization must be sacrificed to become a good all-round athlete. The decathlon is one of the few events with an arbitrary scoring system and thus the only one in which personal performance and records can be broken as new scoring tables are adopted. Under the original scoring tables adopted in 1912, Akilles Järvinen of Finland finished second in both the 1928 and 1932 Olympics, but the new scoring system introduced in 1934 gave Jarvinen higher converted totals than both the men he lost to. World-record holder C.K. Yang lost 1032 points when his 1963 performance was converted late in 1964 to the new tables first used in the 1964 Olympics. His top rivals lost only 287 and 172 points when their bests were converted, and Yang dropped from the favorite to third on the pre-Games ranking, finishing a disappointing fifth. The arbitrary nature of the scoring tables can work in the opposite direction as well. In 1984, at the Los Angeles Olympic Games, Great Britain’s Daley Thompson missed the world record by one point on then-used 1962/77 tables. The tables were changed a year later and Thompson’s score in Los Angeles converted to a best-ever mark.
Points are given to the following formulae used by the IAAF:
A, B and C are parameters that vary by discipline, as shown in the table below, while P is the performance by the athlete in units given in the final column of the table.
|110 m Hurdles||5.74352||28.5||1.92||seconds|
Split evenly between the events, the following table shows the benchmark levels needed to earn 1000, 900, 800, and 700 points in each sport.
|Event||1000 pts||900 pts||800 pts||700 pts||Units|
Using the most current world records, the present theoretical maximum score in the decathlon is 12,516.
|100m||Usain Bolt||9.69 seconds||1174|
|Long Jump||Mike Powell||895 centimeters||1312|
|Shot Put||Randy Barnes||23.12 meters||1295|
|High Jump||Javier Sotomayor||245 centimeters||1244|
|400m||Michael Johnson||43.18 seconds||1156|
|110m Hurdles||Dayron Robles||12.87 seconds||1126|
|Discus Throw||Jürgen Schult||74.08 meters||1383|
|Pole Vault||Sergey Bubka||614 centimeters||1277|
|Javelin Throw||Jan Železný||98.48 meters||1331|
|1500m||Hicham El Guerrouj||206 seconds||1218|
Using the most current world decathlon bests, the present theoretical maximum score in the decathlon is 10,485.
|100m||Chris Huffins||10.22 seconds||1042|
|Long Jump||Erki Nool||822 centimeters||1117|
|Shot Put||Edy Hubacher||19.17 meters||1048|
|High Jump||Rolf Beilschmidt & Christian Schenk||227 centimeters||1061|
|400m||Bill Toomey||45.68 seconds||1025|
|110m Hurdles||Frank Busemann||13.47 seconds||1044|
|Discus Throw||Bryan Clay||55.87 meters||993|
|Pole Vault||Tim Lobinger||576 centimeters||1152|
|Javelin Throw||Peter Blank||79.80 meters||1040|
|1500m||Robert Baker||238.7 seconds||963|
|8462||James Bausch||1932-08-06||Los Angeles|
|8230||Russ Hodge||1966-07-24||Los Angeles|
|8417||Bill Toomey||1969-12-11||Los Angeles|
|8847||Daley Thompson||1984-08-09||Los Angeles|
|Women's world record|
|8366||Austra Skujytė||2005-04-15||Columbia, Missouri|
|8847||Daley Thompson||1984-08-09||Los Angeles|
|8573||Jón Arnar Magnússon||1998-05-31||Götzis|
|8526||Francisco Javier Benet||1998-05-17||Murcia|
|8490||Jagan Hames||1998-09-18||Kuala Lumpur|
|8447||Robert de Wit||1988-05-22||Eindhoven|
|8266||Pedro da Silva Filho||1987-04-23||Walnut, California|
|8213||Mario Anibal Ramos||2001-07-01||Kaunas|
|8047||Hans van Alphen||2007-08-13||Bangkok|
|8009||Yang Chuan-Kwang||1963-04-28||Walnut, California|
|7934||Ahmed Mahour Bacha||1985-07-09||Algiers|
|7882||Carlos O'Connell||1988-06-05||Emmitsburg, Maryland|
|7757||Alper Kasapoğlu||1996-04-19||Azusa, California|
|7730||Ahmad Hassan Moussa||2004-06-27||Ratingen|
|7704||Luiggy Llanos||2003-08-06||Santo Domingo|