The Cynics (Κυνικοί, Cynici) were an influential group of philosophers from the ancient school of Cynicism. Their philosophy was that the purpose of life was to live a life of Virtue in agreement with Nature. This meant rejecting all conventional desires for wealth, power, health, and fame, and by living a life free from all possessions. As reasoning creatures, people could gain happiness by rigorous training and by living in a way which was natural for humans. They believed that the world belonged equally to everyone, and that suffering was caused by false judgments of what was valuable and by the worthless customs and conventions which surrounded society. Many of these thoughts were later absorbed into Stoicism.
The first philosopher to outline these themes was Antisthenes, who had been a pupil of Socrates in the late 5th century BCE. He was followed by Diogenes of Sinope, who lived in a tub on the streets of Athens, took Cynicism to its logical extremes, and came to be seen as the archetypal Cynic philosopher. He was followed by Crates of Thebes who gave away a large fortune so he could live a life of Cynic poverty in Athens. Cynicism spread with the rise of Imperial Rome in the 1st century, and Cynics could be found begging and preaching throughout the cities of the Empire. It finally disappeared in the late 5th century, although many of its ascetic and rhetorical ideas were adopted by early Christians.
Origin of the Cynic name
The name Cynic derives from the Greek
word κυνικός, kunikos
, "dog-like" and that from κύων, kuôn
). One explanation offered in ancient times for why the Cynics were called dogs
was because the first Cynic, Antisthenes
, taught in the Cynosarges
gymnasium at Athens
. The word Cynosarges
means the place of the white dog
. It seems certain, however, that the word dog
was also thrown at the first Cynics as an insult for their shameless rejection of conventional manners, and their decision to live on the streets. Diogenes
, in particular, was referred to as the Dog
, a distinction he seems to have revelled in, stating that "other dogs bite their enemies, I bite my friends to save them.
Later Cynics also sought to turn the word to their advantage, as a later commentator explained:
There are four reasons why the Cynics are so named. First because of the indifference of their way of life, for they make a cult of indifference and, like dogs, eat and make love in public, go barefoot, and sleep in tubs and at crossroads. The second reason is that the dog is a shameless animal, and they make a cult of shamelessness, not as being beneath modesty, but as superior to it. The third reason is
that the dog is a good guard, and they guard the tenets of their philosophy. The fourth reason is that the dog is a discriminating animal which can distinguish between its friends and enemies. So do they recognize as friends those who are suited to philosophy, and receive them kindly, while those unfitted they drive away, like dogs, by barking at them.
Cynicism is one of the most striking of all the Hellenistic
philosophies. It offered people the possibility of happiness and freedom from suffering in an age of uncertainty. Although there was never an official Cynic doctrine, the fundamental principles of Cynicism can be summarised as follows:
- The goal of life is happiness which is to live in agreement with Nature.
- Happiness depends on being self-sufficient, and a master of mental attitude.
- Self-sufficiency is achieved by living a life of Virtue.
- The road to virtue is to free oneself from any influence such as wealth, fame, or power, which have no value in Nature.
- Suffering is caused by false judgments of value, which cause negative emotions and a vicious character.
A Cynic, then, has no property and rejects all conventional values of money, fame, power or reputation. A life lived according to nature requires only the bare necessities required for existence, and one can become free by unshackling oneself from any needs which are the result of convention. The Cynics adopted Hercules as their hero, as epitomizing the ideal Cynic.
The Cynic way of life required continuous training, not just in exercising one's judgments and mental impressions, but a physical training as well:
[Diogenes] used to say, that there were two kinds of exercise: that, namely, of the mind and that of the body; and that the latter of these created in the mind such quick and agile impressions at the time of its performance, as very much facilitated the practice of virtue; but that one was imperfect without the other, since the health and vigour necessary for the practice of what is good, depend equally on both mind and body.
None of this meant that the Cynic would retreat from society, far from it, Cynics would live in the full glare of the public's gaze and would be quite indifferent in the face of any insults
which might result from their unconventional behaviour. The Cynics are said to have invented the idea of cosmopolitanism
: when he was asked where he came from, Diogenes replied that he was "a citizen of the world, (kosmopolitês)
The ideal Cynic would evangelise; as the watchdog
of humanity, it was their job to hound people about the error of their ways. The example of the Cynic's life (and the use of the Cynic's biting satire
) would dig-up and expose the pretensions which lay at the root of everyday conventions.
Although, by concentrating solely on ethics
, Cynicism had limited goals, Cynic philosophy had a big impact on the Hellenistic
world, ultimately becoming an important influence for Stoicism
. The Stoic Apollodorus
writing in the 2nd century BCE
stated that "Cynicism is the short path to virtue.
History of Cynicism
Various philosophers, such as the Pythagoreans
, had advocated simple living in the centuries preceding the Cynics. In the early 6th century BCE
, a Scythian
sage had combined plain living together with criticisms of Greek customs in a manner which would become standard among the Cynics. Perhaps of importance were tales of Indian
philosophers, known to later Greeks as the Gymnosophists
, who had adopted a strict asceticism
together with a disrespect for established laws
. By the 5th century BCE
, the Sophists
had begun a process of questioning many aspects of Greek society such as religion
. However, the most immediate influence for the Cynic school was Socrates
. Although he was not an ascetic, he did profess a love of Virtue
and an indifference to wealth
, together with a disdain for general opinion. These aspects of Socrates' thought, which formed only a minor part of Plato
's philosophy, became the central inspiration for another of Socrates' pupils, Antisthenes
The story of Cynicism traditionally begins with Antisthenes
), who was an older contemporary of Plato
and a pupil of Socrates
. At about 25 years his junior, Antisthenes was one of the most important of Socrates' disciples. Although later classical authors had little doubt about labelling him as the founder of Cynicism, his philosophical views seem to be more complex than the later simplicities of pure Cynicism. In the list of works ascribed to Antisthenes by Diogenes Laërtius
, writings on Language
far outnumber those on Ethics
, although they may reflect how his philosophical interests changed with time. It is certainly true that Antisthenes preached a life of poverty
I have enough to eat till my hunger is stayed, to drink till my thirst is sated; to clothe myself as well; and out of doors not [even] Callias there, with all his riches, is more safe than I from shivering; and when I find myself indoors, what warmer shirting do I need than my bare walls?
Diogenes of Sinope
Diogenes of Sinope
) dominates the story of Cynicism like no other figure. He originally came to Athens
, fleeing his home city, after he and his father, who was in charge of the mint at Sinope
, got into trouble for falsifying the coinage. (The phrase "defacing the currency
" later became proverbial in describing Diogenes' rejection of conventional values.) Later tradition claimed that Diogenes became the disciple of Antisthenes, but it is by no means certain that they ever met. What is true is that Diogenes adopted Antisthenes teachings and embraced the ascetic
way of life, pursuing a lifestyle of self-sufficiency (autarkeia
), austerity (askēsis
), and shamelessness (anaidei
a). There are countless anecdotes about his extravagant asceticism (sleeping in a tub), shameless behaviour (eating raw meat), and his biting satire (on travelling from Sparta
: "I am going from the men's apartments to the women's"), and although it is impossible to tell which of these stories are genuine, they do illustrate the broad character of the man, including an ethical seriousness.
Crates of Thebes
Crates of Thebes
-c. 285 BCE
) is the third figure who dominates Cynic history. He is notable because he renounced a large fortune to live a life of Cynic poverty in Athens. He is said to have been a pupil of Diogenes, but again this is uncertain. Crates married Hipparchia
after she had fallen in love with him and together they lived like beggars on the streets of Athens, where Crates was treated with respect. Crates' later fame (apart from his unconventional lifestyle) lies in the fact that he became the teacher of Zeno of Citium
, the founder of Stoicism
. The Cynic strain to be found in early Stoicism (such as Zeno's own radical views on sexual equality spelled out in his Republic
) can be ascribed to Crates' influence.
There were many other Cynics around in the 4th
and 3rd centuries BCE
, including Onesicritus
(who sailed with Alexander the Great
), and the moral satirists Bion of Borysthenes
and Menippus of Gadara
. However, with the rise of Stoicism in the 3rd century BCE
, Cynicism as a serious philosophical activity underwent a decline, and it is not until we reach the Roman era
that there seems to be a Cynic revival.
Cynicism in the Roman World
We hear very little about Cynicism in the second or first centuries BCE; Cicero
(c. 50 BCE
), who was much interested in Greek philosophy
, had little to say about Cynicism, except that "it is to be shunned; for it is opposed to modesty, without which there can be neither right nor honor.
However, by the 1st century
, Cynicism reappeared with full force. The rise of Imperial Rome
, like the Greek loss of independence under Philip
three centuries earlier, may have led to a sense of powerlessness and frustration among many people which allowed a philosophy which emphasized self-sufficiency and inner-happiness to flourish once again. Cynics could be found throughout the empire, standing on street corners, preaching about Virtue
complained that "every city is filled with such upstarts, particularly with those who enter the names of Diogenes, Antisthenes, and Crates as their patrons and enlist in the Army of the Dog.
The most notable representative of Cynicism in the 1st century was Demetrius
, whom Seneca
praised as "a man of consummate wisdom, though he himself denied it, constant to the principles which he professed, of an eloquence worthy to deal with the mightiest subjects.
Cynicism in Rome was both the butt of the satirist and the ideal of the thinker. In the 2nd century
, Lucian, whilst pouring scorn on the Cynic philosopher Peregrinus Proteus
, nevertheless praised his own Cynic teacher, Demonax
, in a dialogue.
Cynicism came to be seen as an idealised form of Stoicism, a view which led Epictetus to eulogise the ideal Cynic in a lengthy discourse. According to Epictetus, the ideal Cynic "must know that he is sent as a messenger from Zeus to people concerning good and bad things, to show them that they have wandered. Unfortunately for Epictetus, many Cynics of the era did not live up to the ideal: "consider the present Cynics who are dogs that wait at tables, and in no respect imitate the Cynics of old except perchance in breaking wind.
Cynicism seems to have thrived into the 4th century, (unlike Stoicism, which declined as an independent philosophy after the 2nd century). The Emperor Julian (ruled 361-363), like Epictetus, praised the ideal Cynic and complained about the actual practitioners of Cynicism.
The final Cynic we hear about is Sallustius of Emesa in the late 5th century. A student of the Neoplatonic philosopher Isidore of Alexandria, he devoted himself to living a life of Cynic asceticism.
Cynicism and Christianity
Historical Jesus as a Jewish Cynic
Many historians have noted the similarities between the life and teachings of Jesus
and those of the Cynics. Some scholars on the quest for the historical Jesus
, such as John Dominic Crossan
of the Jesus Seminar
, who have conducted a study of Jesus using cross-cultural anthropology
history, and an analysis of the primary sources of the Jesus tradition
itself, have come to the controversial conclusion that the historical Jesus
was more like a Cynic sage from an Hellenistic Jewish
tradition than either a Christ
who would die as a substitute for sinners
or a Messiah
who would lead a revolt against the Roman Empire
and establish an independent Jewish state of Israel. Burton Mack
has described Jesus as a "rather normal Cynic-type figure. The city of Gadara
, only a day's walk from Nazareth
, was particularly notable as a center of Cynic philosophy.
Cynic influences on early Christianity
Many of the ascetic
practices of Cynicism were undoubtably adopted by early Christians
, and Christians often employed the same rhetorical
methods as the Cynics. Some Cynics were actually martyred for speaking out against the authorities. One Cynic, Peregrinus Proteus
, lived for a time as a Christian before converting to Cynicism, whereas in the 4th century
, Maximus of Alexandria
, although a Christian, was also called a Cynic because of his ascetic lifestyle. The ascetic orders of Christianity also had direct connection with the Cynics, as can be seen in the wandering mendicant
monks of the early church who in outward appearance, and in many of their practices were little different from the Cynics of an earlier age.
- Antisthenes (c. 445-c. 365 BCE), Pupil of Socrates.
- Diogenes (c. 412-323 BCE), The archetypal Cynic.
- Onesicritus (c. 360-c. 290 BCE), Historian of Alexander the Great.
- Crates (c. 365-c. 285 BCE), Cynic teacher of Zeno of Citium.
- Hipparchia (c. 325 BCE), Wife of Crates.
- Metrocles (c. 325 BCE), Brother of Hipparchia.
- Bion of Borysthenes (c. 325-c. 255 BCE), Cynic satirist and diatribist.
- Menippus (c. 275 BCE), Cynic satirist.
- Cercidas (c. 250 BCE), Cynic poet.
- Teles (c. 235 BCE), Cynic teacher and writer.
Roman era Cynics:
- R. Bracht Branham, Marie-Odile Goulet-Cazé, (editors), (1996), The Cynics: The Cynic Movement in Antiquity and Its Legacy. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21645-8
- Ian Cutler, (2005), Cynicism from Diogenes to Dilbert. McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-786-42093-6
- William D. Desmond, (2006), The Greek Praise of Poverty: Origins of Ancient Cynicism. University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-02582-7
- F. Gerald Downing, (1992), Cynics and Christian Origins. T. & T. Clark. ISBN 0-567-09613-0
- Donald R. Dudley, (1937), A History of Cynicism from Diogenes to the 6th Century A.D. Bristol Classical Paperbacks. ISBN 1-853-99548-7 (Available at the Internet Archive)
- Luis E. Navia, (1996), Classical Cynicism: A Critical Study. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30015-1