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cutting

cutting

[kuht-ing]
cutting, in horticulture, part of a plant stem, leaf, or root cut off and used for producing a new plant. It is a convenient and inexpensive method of propagation, not possible for all plants but used generally for grapes; chrysanthemums; verbenas (stem cuttings); blackberries (root cuttings); African violets (leaf cuttings); and for many other plants. Cuttings, as soon as they are made, are usually placed in moist sand, frequently heated from below; if taken in the fall, as hardwood cuttings of trees or shrubs, they are kept in unheated sand over the winter and planted in the spring. The word cutting alone usually means stem cutting; slip is a common synonym. The general availability today of rooting hormones and misting devices has made possible the propagation by cuttings of many kinds of plants that had not previously responded favorably.

See G. W. Adriance and F. R. Brison, Propagation of Horticultural Plants (2d ed. 1955); H. Hartmann and D. E. Kester, Plant Propagation (5th ed. 1990).

or female circumcision or female genital mutilation or clitoridectomy

Surgical procedure ranging from drawing blood, to removing the clitoris alone, to infibulation or Pharaonic circumcision—removing the external genitals, joining the sides and leaving a small opening. The practice dates to ancient times; usually performed on young girls and in a ritual context, it is purported by its practitioners to guard a girl's virginity and reduce her sexual desires. Because it is usually undertaken in unhygienic conditions, cutting may lead to severe bleeding, infection, debilitating pain, and death; long-term consequences can include an inability to urinate or expel menstrual blood, pain during sexual intercourse, and prolonged childbirth. In some cultures women are reinfibulated after childbirth, while others discourage this practice.

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Branch of lapidary art involving the five basic steps in fashioning a diamond: marking, cleaving, sawing, girdling, and faceting. The most popular style is the brilliant cut, a round stone with 58 facets; a round diamond with only 18 facets is known as a single cut. Any other style is known as a fancy cut. Seealso gemstone.

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Light saddle horse trained to cut (isolate) livestock, especially cattle, from herds. Most are quarter horses, with the intelligence, speed, and ability to make quick starts, stops, and turns. A well-trained cutting horse can maneuver an animal away from a herd and into a corner with little direction from a rider or, in some cases, without a rider.

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Cutting is the separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. An implement commonly used for cutting is the knife or in medical cases the scalpel. However, any sufficiently sharp object is capable of cutting if it has a hardness sufficiently larger than the object being cut, and if it is applied with sufficient force. Cutting also describes the action of a saw which removes material in the process of cutting.

Cutting is a compressive and shearing phenomenon, and occurs only when the total stress generated by the cutting implement exceeds the ultimate strength of the material of the object being cut. The simplest applicable equation is stress = force/area: The stress generated by a cutting implement is directly proportional to the force with which it is applied, and inversely proportional to the area of contact. Hence, the smaller the area (i.e., the sharper the cutting implement), the less force is needed to cut something.

When referring to propagating plants, cutting is one of the methods that can be used. It involves cutting a part of the plant typically a healthy shoot, with sharp and sterile scissors or any other cutting device, and then placing the removed part in water. Some cuttings do not require water. Certain shoots when cut are able to grow when placed in vermiculite or potting soil. However, the former is the easiest to do as most shoots when cut from the main plant need time to grow roots, and then they are able to be transferred to potting soil.

Tools commonly used for cutting

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