Ancient city west of Naples, Italy. Probably the oldest Greek mainland colony in the West, it was home to the Cumaean Sibyl, whose cavern still exists. Founded circa 750 BC by Greeks from Chalcis, it came to control much of the Campanian plain. Taken by the Samnites in the 5th century BC, it was subjugated by Rome in 338 BC. Under the empire it became a quiet country town. It was destroyed in AD 1205. Remains of fortifications and graves from all these periods have been found throughout the area.
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Cumae (Italian: Cuma, Greek: Κύμη or Κύμαι) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. Cumae was the first Greek colony on the mainland of Italy (Magna Graecia) and is perhaps most famous as the seat of the Cumaean Sibyl.
The Greeks were planted upon the earlier dwellings of indigenous, Iron-Age peoples whom they supplanted; a memory of them was preserved as cave-dwellers named Cimmerians, among whom there was already an oracular tradition. Its name comes from the Greek word kymé, meaning wave - perhaps in reference to the big waves that the peninsula of Κyme in Euboea has. The colony was also the entry point in the Italian peninsula for the Cumaean alphabet used in the ancient Greek city of Cuma, a variant of which was adapted by the Romans.
Cumae was a direct offshoot of an earlier colony on the island of Ischia, Pithekoussai, founded by colonists from the Euboean cities of Cuma (Kύμη) and Chalcis (Χαλκίς) which was accounted its mother-city, by agreement among the first settlers.
The colony thrived. By the eighth century it was strong enough to send Perieres and a group with him, who were among the founders of Zancle in Sicily, and another band had returned to found Triteia in Achaea, Pausanias was told. It spread its influence throughout the area over the seventh and sixth centuries BC, gaining sway over Puteoli and Misenum and, thereafter, founding Neapolis in 470 BC. All these facts were recalled long afterwards; Cumae's first brief contemporary mention in written history is in Thucydides.
The Latins, Greeks and Etruscans were among the first settlers...
The growing power of the Cumaean Greeks led many indigenous tribes of the region to organize against them, notably the Dauni and Aurunci with the leadership of the Capuan Etruscans. This coalition was defeated by the Cumaeans in 524 BC under the direction of Aristodemus, called Malacus, a successful man of the people who overthrew the aristocratic faction, became a tyrant himself, and was assassinated. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last legendary King of Rome, lived his life in exile with Aristodemus at Cumae after the establishment of the Roman Republic.
Under Roman rule "quiet Cumae" slumbered until the disasters of the Gothic Wars, when it was repeatedly attacked, as the only fortified city in Campania aside from Neapolis: Belisarius took it in 536, Totila held it, and when Narses gained possession of Cumae, he found he had won the whole treasury of the Goths. In 1207, forces from Naples, acting for the boy-King of Sicily, destroyed the city and its walls, as the stronghold of a nest of bandits.
The Temple of Zeus at Cumae was transformed into a Christian basilica at the end of the fourth century. At Cumae was set a widely influential Christian work of the second century, The Shepherd of Hermas said by its author to have been inspired by way of visions.
In principle it is thought to have been founded around 740 BC, although the oldest archaeological records dating from 725-720 BC
According to legend, the founders of Cuma were Evia by Chalkida, which under the leadership of Ippocle of Cuma (dibattutto is whether this was Cuma euboica or wind Cuma ) And Megastene of Chalkida, chose to land at that point because the coast attracted to the flight of a dove or other by a clang of cymbals.
The founders found a particularly fertile ground at the edge of the plain bell. While continuing their maritime traditions and commercial Cuma of the settlers strengthened their political and economic power on the exploitation of their land and extended their territory against neighboring peoples of the mire.
Over time, Cuma established its dominance on almost all the Campania coast until Punta Campanella, reaching its maximum power. Charged Peoples of the border, but does not let you wait long, in fact 524 BC Capua of the Etruscans formed a league with other populations, to win Cuma expand both geographically and by trade. The clash was resolved favorably for Cumani, thanks also how to strategically of the tyrant Aristodemo said Malachi.
After this battle followed two other victorious for Cumani, a first next to the Latins Aricia against Etruscans and a second in 474 BC alongside Siracusans which had sent their fleet ever against the Etruscans, finally succeeding in hunting them from Campania. Clash remembered as Battle of Cuma. The glorious victories of the colony had increased the prestige, so much so that refers to what Diodorus Siculus, with the name of 'campaign Cuma' is used to indicate the whole region of Campi Flegrei.
The luck of Cuma not wait long because, around 421 BC, advanced succumb Campani of the conquered.
In the Roman conquest of the Campania, was given a Cuma (in 334 BC) the civitas sine suffrage and when, more than a century later, Hannibal tried in every way to conquer along with Pozzuoli, she is resolutely opposed inflicting at Hama (which some scholars identify the outskirts of the Torre di Santa Chiara, while others more to the north, towards the Volturno) with a tough defeat Troops Capua that alliance with Carthaginians (251 BC).
At that time the Campania was in full economic development and Cuma, which on the one hand enjoyed an excellent strategic position for military action, the other suffered for the difficult communication caused by the presence of Silva Gallinariaa and marshes of which he was surrounded.
During the civil wars Cuma was one of the most valuable strongholds that Lewisville opposed to Sesto Pompeo, but after the victory of Octavian, it became a place of rest and quiet, a refuge from the stormy and troubled life of Puteoli, a city so quiet that Juvenal, in satire III, can not help but envy a friend of his.
Later he became one of the major centers of Christianity in Campania and bulwark of civilization. Fall inexorably fortunate to Pozzuoli because of the barbarian incursions, on the contrary, Cuma set on a hill inaccessible, fortified and surrounded by Silva Gallinaria, managed to stand still for a long time.
During the war between Goths and Byzantines, Cuma was the scene of long-ups of fighting. Fell under the power of the Byzantines and AD 558 was fortified by the prefect of the fleet Flavio Nonio Erasto until it passed under the domination and Lombard ruled by the Dukes of Napoli.
The raids of Saracens gave the coup de grace. Established the Acropolis where they could find a safe refuge in tunnels of the mountain, the pirates long sow terror in the Bay of Naples, until the latter in 1207 under the command of Goffredo of Montefuscolo, decided to put an end to raids and incursions, Stan the Saracens in their dens, thereby releasing the Gulf.
Since then Cuma was virtually uninhabited, the underground water of Clanis and Volturno did so that the city and its territory, especially in the lower part, become a huge quagmire. For centuries there was along the coast of Licola, and only a swamp at the beginning of the twentieth century they began reclaiming and archaeological excavation.
Cuma was that the widespread colony in Italy, the Greek culture, spreading the alphabet Calcidesi, who assimilated and adopted by the Etruscans and the Latin, became the alphabet of the language and literature in Rome and then of the whole Western culture.
Intimately linked to Cuma is the myth of the Sibilla Cumana. Since the third book is written that dell'Eneide Aeneas, if you would finally find the land devoted to his people by the gods, must go to question the oracle of Cuma (Aeneid, III, 440-452 ). Currently l 'lair of the Sybil is a tourist attraction of considerable interest.
'Cuma' and its territory occupy an area that extends north-south, following the trend of coast Domizio.
To the east rise the hills of Monteruscello and Monte Grillo, which represent the outer flanks of two volcanic systems. To the south the area grows until Lake Fusaro, while the north includes the reclaimed area of the Lake Licola.
Cumano The territory is characterized by a coastal low and sandy, in a stretch connecting the slopes of volcanic hills. Area of slopes not too steep and otherwise shaped by erosion of rainwater.
The importance of Mount Cuma (Acropolis) and its southern extensions, interrupt the continuity of morphological Therefore, reaching the top by lying coastal sharply up at the building about 80 m. Here emerge the oldest volcanic products, consisting of lavas trachyte with breaches and associated waste. These rocks form the dome structure of a lava dome, which pose tuffs gray sub-litoidi and limited to Eastern Europe, tuffs yellow litoidi dating to about 11,000 years ago.
The erosive action and transport of atmospheric resulted, at the foot of the slopes, the accumulation of debris thin materials, which combine to sea with the bodies of sedimentary sandy coastal dune systems. The latter is formed and increase the charge by sediment coming from even more distant areas, carried by currents long-coast.
Near the south side of Mount Cuma in natural formed in the low hill tufaceous, was probably placed the ancient port of cumana colony, which today is completely buried by sediments from coastal and carry materials used for the rehabilitation of .
The vast drainage areas between the strip and Dunarea areas side, are now used for intensive horticultural cultivation, while the territories are more inclined largely terraced and mainly worked to cultures of mixed (vineyard-orchard, vegetable garden-orchard ). Grooves in the sides there are small slices forest.
The coast of Licola - Cuma is an area of great importance to the environment. It finds the coastal vegetation and example of vegetation azonale. Despite the devastating action, in this area is still possible to find the original flora that once covered the coast of Italy.
The band Dunarea consists essentially of two systems parallel to the coast. On the shoreline grow annual plants and rade in the direction of the first band is Dunarea vegetation halophiles (ammofileto cakileto). The inner part, or the secondary dune, in summer reaches very high temperatures and the species that grow there have adapted to these extreme conditions. E 'here blooming in the summer Pancratium maritimum or Giglio Marine plant that has become rare for the over-harvesting by man and his habitat increasingly widespread.
Proceeding further inland dunes are consolidated ruled by the Mediterranean bush with the essences, such as rock, the Myrtle, the rosemary, the [[Juniper] ]. From this point onwards, towards the east, extends the fossil dune covered by the Silva Gallinaria or a forest of holm rising on sandy and arid land, today more than rare. Already known to the ancients for its inaccessible and at the same pleasant, defined by dense vegetation of ilex mixed with typical Mediterranean shrubs.
In terms of game, there are a countless amount migratory birds, particularly endangered, that in this area are protected. It starts with many varieties of birds marsh to the most rare migratory, headed by the return of 'heron. But not only this Pennuto crowd. The beach is the place chosen for reproduction by another animal dying breed: the sea turtle Caretta caretta.
As not enough, the seascape is a treasure that belongs to all the Mediterranean Sea. Just opposite the beach Cuma - Licola with Ischia and Ventotene is a Submarine Canyon that takes the name of Canyon of Cuma: An underwater rich foods whales as dolphins and balenottere.
In the pleasant scenery of Cuma, invaluable for its archaeological treasures and the fragile ecosystem, there is a structure that can easily be described as eco-monster: the purifier. The Purifier of Cuma was constructed by Italimpianti at the end of the'70s and launched the beginning of the 80s and is part of the project Regi Lagni directed by Enea
The sea of Cuma (and near the coast) is suffering for the sewage that pours structure, to the extent of 30 tonnes (approximately) of material per day The environmental impact of Purifier of Cuma is highly invasive : first issue in the sea material remaining black water; by ' Other issues in an unbearable smell, which continue to raise protests and demonstrations by residents, that over the malfunctioning of the facility to protest the decline in the value has ecomostro that caused buildings in the area affected www.codacons.it/articolo.asp?id=33417v
The protests are not only related to the people, bathers and associations and nature reserves, but also to staff working in the building, which has repeatedly strike at the delays in wage payments and for the protection of the environment and nature.
Thanks to Purifier of Cuma the Campania Region received the Black Flag by Legambiente causes the malfunction of the building that has continued for over 20 years, helping to increase the percentage of sewage that flows into the sea without any treatment, around 30% The high pollution of the purifier of Cuma is also verified by 'Operation Chernobyl conducted by Police, which led to the arrest of 38 persons and seizure with a prescription and the right' use of the plant, for environmental disaster and illicit trafficking of waste, in addition to other counts
The concern of residents and nature reserves is easily understandable when you consider that just on the shore where the channel leading to the Strainer Cuma, is the protected area of Regional Park Campi Flegrei, that the beach is site of Community Importance as well as special protected area, where turtles nest and that extends off the Submarine Canyon of Cuma.