Kessler et al (2003)161-171. compared a Zn proteinate (Bioplex Zn, Alltech), a Zn polysaccharide complex (Carbosan Zn, Quali Tech) and ZnO (inorganic zinc oxide) in bull beef cattle, and concluded that the organic forms resulted in some improvement in hoof claw quality.
In a review article of the role of minerals in fertility and reproductive diseases of dairy cattle Wilde (2006) highlights that organic forms of Zn are retained better than inorganic sources and so may provide greater benefit in disease prevention, notably mastitis and lameness.
Ryan et al (2002)J. P. Ryan, P. Kearns and T. Quinn (2002) Bioavailability of dietary copper and zinc in adult Texel sheep: A comparative study of the effects of sulfate and Bioplex supplementation. Irish Veterinary Journal 55(5):May 2002,221-224. compared the bioavailability of Cu and Zn proteinates (Bioplex, Alltech) in sheep with the inorganic sulfate forms, at "low" and "high" supplementation rates. Bioplex Cu and Zn at the lower rates caused significantly greater increases in plasma concentrations than the corresponding treatments with Zn sulfate (p<0.05) and Cu sulfate (p<0.01). In addition, Bioplex Zn supplementation resulted in significantly greater hoof horn Zn content than did Zn sulfate (p<0.05). At the "low" supplementation rate Bioplex Zn achieved better hoof quality than Zn sulfate (p<0.05). The data suggest that Cu and Zn proteinates are more readily absorbed and more easily deposited in key tissues such as hooves, in comparison with inorganic Zn forms.
In weaned piglets, Carlson et al (2004)1359–1366. evaluated various supplementation rates of organic Zn in the form of a proteinate (Bioplex Zn, Alltech) or as a polysaccharide complex (Sea-Questra Min Zn, Quali Tech), and compared these with ZnO (zinc oxide) at 2,000 ppm. Feeding lower concentrations of organic Zn greatly decreased the amount of Zn excreted in comparison with inorganic Zn, without loss of growth performance.
Veum et al (2004) 1062–1070.studied a Cu proteinate (Bioplex, Alltech) in weaned pigs in comparison with inorganic Cu sulfate. Piglet performance was consistently better with organic Cu at 50 to 100 ppm, in comparison with inorganic Cu at 250 ppm. In addition, organic Cu increased Cu absorption and retention, and decreased Cu excretion 77% and 61% respectively, compared with 250 ppm inorganic Cu.
Guo et al (2003)143-150 investigated the effects of an Mg proteinate (Bioplex Mg, Alltech) in broiler chickens in comparison with MgO (magnesium oxide) and an unsupplemented control group. Diets for fattening chicken are not normally supplemented with Mg, but this study indicated positive effects on performance and meat quality. During the first 3 weeks of life, the Mg proteinate improved feed efficiency significantly in comparison with both the inorganic MgO and the negative control group (p<0.05). Thigh meat pH and oxidative deterioration during storage were also studied. The Mg proteinate increased thigh meat pH in comparison with the negative control ((p<0.05). Mg supplementation significantly reduced chemical indicators (TBARS) of oxidative deterioration in liver and thigh muscle (p<0.01), with Mg proteinate significantly more efficient than MgO (p<0.01). The data suggest that organic Mg in the form of a proteinate is capable of reducing oxidation, and so improve chicken meat quality.
A Zn proteinate supplement (Bioplex Zn, Alltech) was compared with Zn sulfate in broiler chickens (Ao et al 2006)T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, R. Power, K.A. Dawson, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor and M.J. Ford (2006) Investigation of relative bioavailability value and requirement of Bioplex Zinc (organic zinc) for chicks. J. Poultry. Sci 5 (9): 808:811. Weight gain and feed intake increased quadratically (p<0.05) with increasing Zn concentrations from the proteinate and linearly with Zn sulfate. The relative bioavailability of the Zn proteinate was 183% and 157% of Zn sulfate for weight gain and tibia Zn, respectively. The authors concluded that the supplemental concentration of Zn required in corn-soy diets for broilers from 1–21 days of age would be 9.8 mg/kg diet (as Zn proteinate) and 20.1 mg/kg diet (as Zn sulfate), respectively.
Nollet et al (2007)592–597 studied the effect of replacing inorganic minerals with organic proteinates (Bioplex, Alltech) in broiler chickens. One group of chickens received inorganic sulfates of Cu (12 ppm), Fe (45 ppm), Mn (70 ppm) and Zn (37 ppm) and their performance was compared to a similar group supplemented with proteinates of Cu (2.5 ppm), Fe, Mn, and Zn (all at 10 ppm). There were no differences in performance between the birds fed the “high” inorganic minerals and the birds fed the “low” organic chelates, but significantly lower faecal mineral excretion rates were observed for birds fed the organic mineral proteinates (p<0.05). Faecal concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were 55%, 73%, 46% and 63%, respectively, of control birds fed inorganic minerals.
A broiler study reported by Peric et al (2007)L. Peric, L. Nollet, N. Miloševic and D. Zikic (2007) Effect of Bioplex and Sel-Plex substituting inorganic trace mineral sources on performance of broilers. Arch.Geflügelk., 71 (3). S. 122–129. also compared inorganic and organic mineral supplementation in broiler chickens. Control birds were fed Cu, Fe, Mn Se and Zn in inorganic forms (15 ppm Cu 15 from sulfate; 60 ppm Fe from sulfate; 60 ppm Mn from oxide; 0.3 ppm Se as Na selenite; and 60 ppm Zn from oxide) and compared with 3 treatment groups supplemented with organic forms (Bioplex/Sel-Plex, Alltech: 5, 10 & 15 ppm Cu 15 from Cu proteinate; 15, 30 & 45 ppm Fe from Fe proteinate; 15, 30 & 45 ppm Mn from Mn proteinate; 0.1, 0.2 & 0.3 ppm organic Se from yeast; and 15, 30 & 45 ppm Zn from Zn proteinate). Apart from improved feathering, most likely associated with the presence of organic Se from yeast, there were no significant performance differences between birds fed inorganic and organic minerals. The authors concluded that the use of organic trace minerals permits a reduction of at least 33% in supplement rates in comparison with inorganic minerals, without compromising performance.
WIPO PUBLISHES PATENT OF ULVAC FOR "PROCESS FOR PRODUCING CU-IN-GA ALLOY POWDER, PROCESS FOR PRODUCING CU-IN-GA-SE ALLOY POWDER, PROCESS FOR PRODUCING SINTERED CU-IN-GA-SE ALLOY, CU-IN-GA ALLOY POWDER AND CU-IN-GA-SE ALLOY POWDER" (JAPANESE INVENTORS)
Dec 22, 2011; GENEVA, Dec. 22 -- Publication No. WO/2011/148600 was published on Dec. 01. Title of the invention: "PROCESS FOR PRODUCING...
Researchers Submit Patent Application, "Powder, Sintered Body and Sputtering Target, Each Containing Elements of Cu, in, Ga and Se, and Method for Producing the Powder", for Approval
May 16, 2013; By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Politics & Government Week -- From Washington, D.C., VerticalNews journalists report that...
WIPO PUBLISHES PATENT OF JX NIPPON MINING & METALS FOR "CU-IN-GA-SE QUATERNARY ALLOY SPUTTERING TARGET" (JAPANESE INVENTORS)
Apr 12, 2012; GENEVA, April 12 -- Publication No. WO/2012/042959 was published on April 5. Title of the invention: "CU-IN-GA-SE QUATERNARY...
WIPO ASSIGNS PATENT TO KOREA INSTITUTE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FOR "CU-IN-ZN-SN-(SE,S)-BASED THIN FILM FOR SOLAR CELL AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF" (SOUTH KOREAN INVENTORS)
Jun 27, 2011; GENEVA, June 27 -- Publication No. WO/2011/074784 was published on June 23. Title of the invention: "CU-IN-ZN-SN-(SE,S)-BASED...