crop rotation

Successive cultivation of different crops in a specified order on the same fields. Some rotations are designed for high immediate returns, with little regard for basic resources. Others are planned for high continuing returns while protecting resources. A typical scheme selects rotation crops from three classifications: cultivated row crops (e.g., corn, potatoes), close-growing grains (e.g., oats, wheat), and sod-forming, or rest, crops (e.g., clover, clover-timothy). In general, cropping systems should include deep-rooting legumes. In addition to the many beneficial effects on soils and crops, well-planned crop rotations make the farm a more effective year-round enterprise by providing more efficient handling of labour, power, and equipment, reduction in weather and market risks, and improved ability to meet livestock requirements.

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Usually, an aircraft used for dusting or spraying large acreages with pesticides, though other types of dusters are also employed. Aerial spraying and dusting permit prompt coverage of large areas at the moment when application of pesticide is most effective and avoid the need for wheeled vehicles that might damage crops. The technique was greatly improved in the 1960s with the development of ultra-low-volume applicators, in which concentrated pesticides are distributed in extremely small amounts. Seealso spraying and dusting.

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The crop-lien system became widely used in the United States after the Civil War in the South.

Crop-lien system was a way for farmers to get credit. After the crop was harvested they would use it to pay back their loan. This is different from sharecropping.

In the postwar South, many former slaves remained as farmers. Not having any money, they could not buy land but instead worked a small portion of a large parcel owned by a single person. Many former slaves were tenants of the same landowner and each had their own section of farm to work on independently, hence the term "sharecropper." In exchange for working on the owner's land, the sharecropper would give some of his harvest as payment.

Also having hardly any possessions, the sharecroppers bartered with merchants to loan them supplies essential for farming. The deal was similar to the land owners': a percentage of the harvest would be given to the merchant to pay for the supplies. This system would have worked if the merchant lenders charged reasonable interest rates. However, racism was a factor in that the merchant's interest rates were impossible for the sharecroppers to pay off. In addition, when the bank gave someone a loan, it was allowed to dictate the crop that a farmer grew. Therefore, the banker for a certain area would tell everyone to grow the same crop and with an increased competition it was even harder for the farmers to sell their goods. It was a constant cycle of debt.

(A farmer would farm someone else's land and give a portion of his crops to the land owner (Sharecropping) with a hope of someday saving up enough to buy the land from the owner. A Sharecropper would have to buy his own equipment and seed with yet more portions of his crop, and usually earned barely enough to survive, falling deeper and deeper into debt.)

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