The (Trogidae) or hide beetles are a family of beetles with a distinctive warty or bumpy appearance. Found worldwide, the family includes about 300 species contained in three genera.

Trogids range in length from 2.5 to 20.0 mm. Their shape is oblong to oval, with a generally flat abdomen. Their color ranges from brown to gray or black, often obscured with a dirt encrusting. Otherwise they resemble scarab beetles, with heavy limbs and spurs.

They are scavengers, being among the last to visit and feed on the dried-out remains of dead animals; both adults and larvae will eat feathers, fur, and skin. They may also be found in bird and mammal nests. Details of species' life histories is usually poorly known, since many are specialized to particular types of nests. Between their covering of dirt and a habit of becoming motionless when disturbed, they are often overlooked, both by predators and by collectors.

The taxonomic position of these beetles is somewhat unsettled, with many authorities placing them as a subfamily Troginae of the Scarabaeidae. The common name "skin beetle" is sometimes used, but that name is usually used of the Dermestidae.


Trogidae, otherwise noted as the skin beetle, the hide beetle, and the carcass beetle is found worldwide. The family of Trogidae has approximately three hundred species containing three different genera that occur within all seven continents: Trox, Omorgus, and Polynoncus. These three genera are declared as the only known genera in the ‘New World’; with Trox discovered by Fabricius in 1775, Omorgus discovered by Erichson in 1847, and Polynoncus discovered by Burmeister in 1876.

The family of Trogidae favors dry environments over moist environments and therefore is often found within temperate and plains areas. Each particular genus is found in different regions of the world, such as the Trox genus is found in the Holarctic/Ethiopian area; the Omorgus genus is typically more within the southern continents; and the Polynoncus genus is found in South America. Specifically the beetles are found within the pellet of any variety of animal, surrounding carrion or other decaying dry matter, and around birds’ and mammals’ nests and feathers as well as aging bones.

The origins and classifications for the family of Trogidae are very controversial but recent NA literature depicts Trogidae as its own family rather than a subfamily of Scarabaeidae. One major reason for the dispute between classifications is the possible evolution of the ommatidium in the eyes. The different environments, predators, etc. probably led to the adaptation of ommatidium structures within this family. For example the more advanced and numerous the ommatidium the more present the larger the ability of the insect to escape and elude predators. Due to these similarities many call the family of Scarabaeidae a ‘superfamily’ to the family of Trogidae. It is believed that Trogidae hails from Australia. Although migration to other parts of the world is not clearly outlined, it could be assumed that they first traveled with goods and cargo on ships.


Trogidae are characterized by their distinct dirt-incrusted, warty or bumpy appearance. They are usually brown to gray/black in color and are covered with short, fairly dense setae. Their body shape is oblong to oval with a flat abdomen and their length varies from 2 to 20 millimeters depending on species. The antenna of hide beetles are usually fairly short and clubbed. The hardened elytra of Trogidae, which are generally covered with small knobs giving the beetle their rough appearance, meet along the midline of the body and cover the entire abdomen and well developed wings. Their head is bent down and covered by the pronotum. They also have heavy limbs and spurs resembling those of scarab beetles. Trogidae larvae are a creamy yellow/white in color, except at their caudal end which darkens as it accumulates with feces. They have a heavily sclerotized cranium that is almost black in color. The abdominal segments have at least one or more transverse rows of setae.

Diet and Habitat

Their predators are rare due to their habit of being covered with dirt and debris and that when they are disturbed they have a habit of being motionless or faking death to avoid detection or being eaten. Their most common predators are birds since they tend to invade nests among other things.

The Trogidae family is predaceous in addition to being scavengers. The pupae, larval, and adult stages of life have all been documented to be cannibalistic. Because of this tendency, the adult beetles will postpone, or delay pupation in an effort to maintain their safety and find a safe pupation site. The adult hide beetle produces a pheromone in its feces that leads other adults and larvae to food sources. Studies have shown that this species is not cannibalistic due to over-crowding of populations, but just a food source preference.

Beetles of the Trogidae family have also been found to feed off of carcasses in the wild that have died and are decomposing. In one lab experiment done in 1998 by the Department of Zoology at the University of Melbourne, the hide beetle ate all tissues on a sheep carcass and left the bones.

When carcasses are not available their diet consists of eating the dry remains of dead mammals and birds in later to last stages of decomposition. Since they are usually the last at the scene, they can be found eating feathers, fur, skin, feces and anything else they can scavenge. Trogidae Omorgus candidus or any beetle in the family Trogidae is a scavenger type beetle that all have the same diet and predators for all in this family are the same.

Mating Habits and Life Cycle

During decomposition of a carcass, the beetles will leave their nest to feed on the carrion. As the last succession of insects to appear on the carcass, both larvae and adults can be found feeding on the dry remains. At the site of the carcass, an impregnated female will dig small, vertical columns underneath the carcass to lay her eggs allowing the larvae to locate food after hatching.

Upon maturation of the larvae (approximately 6-8 weeks), females and males will mate. The male will sense odor cues from the female about her fertility. The male will mount the female and begin copulation. Copulation will be ended by the male. Males will tend to mate 6-7 times in their life span. Competition between the males for the female occurs occasionally as well as intra-sexual copulation between males. Males and females are polygamous.

There is little known about the life cycle of the Trogidae specifically. Their life cycles are very similar to the other genera of Scarabaeoidea (i.e. Passalidae and Lucanidae). Trogidae are holometabolous and usually have 3-5 instars. After impregnation of the female by the male, the female will lay the eggs and the larvae will hatch after an unknown amount of time. The larvae will usually molt twice growing and maturing until pupation. After pupation, the exoskeleton is finally formed and further growth will cease.

Forensic Importance

Trogidae's use in forensic entomology is unknown at this time. They are scavengers and can be found in carcasses or bird or mammal nests. They typically arrive last in the order of succession and feed on dried feathers, fur, and skin, but could be the first in succession if a body was first burned and charred. After the burned skin is eaten away by the Trogids, the corpse (with now-exposed, "fresher" surfaces) allows for viable colonization by other forensically important insects that help determine accurate PMI estimates. The adults lay their eggs in vertical burrows in the soil beneath carcasses.

Various species of Trogidae have been used by museums to clean up skeletons by eating any remaining dried material left on the skeletons leaving them clean for display. This method of bone-stripping has been used by some museums for many years as it is the most effective method.

Current and Future Research

The Chinese have been especially interested in the taxonomy of Trogidae. There is a current study involving advancements at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in efforts to further our knowledge on the classification of this family of beetles.

African Trogidae are being studied through the University of Pretoria on the forensic importance of these beetles, as well as other carrion-associated beetles. Their article discusses how the presence of beetles on carrion effects the infestation of other arthropods in Africa.



Omorgus acinus Scholtz, 1980 (Tanzania)
Omorgus alternans (MacLeay, 1827) (Australia)
Omorgus amitinus Kolbe, 1904 (Kenya)
Omorgus asper LeConte, 1854 (southern USA, Mexico)
Omorgus asperulatus Harold, 1872 (Southern Africa)
Omorgus australasiae (Erichson, 1842) (Australia)
Omorgus baccatus Gerstaecker, 1867 (Kenya, Tanzania)
Omorgus badeni (Harold, 1872) (Brazil, Colombia)
Omorgus batesi (Harold, 1872) (Argentina, Brazil)
Omorgus birmanicus Arrow, 1927 (Southeast Asia)
Omorgus borgognoi Marchand, 1902 (Mauretania, Mali, Chad)
Omorgus borrei (Harold, 1872) (Uruguay, Argentina)
Omorgus brucki Harold, 1872 (Australia)
Omorgus candezei Harold, 1872 (Argentina)
Omorgus capillaceus Scholtz, 1990 (Colombia)
Omorgus carinatus Loomis, 1922 (Southern USA to Mexico)
Omorgus ciliatus (Blanchard, 1846)
Omorgus consanguineus Peringuey, 1901 (DR Congo, Zimbabwe, Namibia)
Omorgus costatus (Wiedemann, 1823) (Australia to India and China)
Omorgus crotchi Harold, 1871 (Australia)
Omorgus denticulatus (Olivier, 1789) (Africa)
Omorgus desertorum Harold, 1872 (Madagascar, Egypt, Arabia)
Omorgus discedens Haaf, 1954 (Somalia, Tanzania)
Omorgus elevatus Harold, 1872 (Angola, Namibia)
Omorgus endroedyi Scholtz, 1979 (Namibia, Angola)
Omorgus expansus Arrow, 1900 (Somalia)
Omorgus eyrensis Blackburn, 1904 (Australia)
Omorgus foveolatus Boheman, 1860 (Madagascar, Namibia)
Omorgus freyi Haaf, 1954 (Southern Africa)
Omorgus fuliginosus Robinson, 1941 (Costa Rica to Texas)
Omorgus funestus Lansberge, 1886 (Angola)
Omorgus gemmatus (Olivier, 1789) (Africa, Arabia)
Omorgus glaber Scholtz, 1980 (Tanzania) (= Afromorgus lindemannae)
Omorgus granulatus (Herbst, 1783) (India, Sri Lanka)
Omorgus guttalis Haaf, 1954 (Africa)
Omorgus inclusus Walker, 1858 (Sri Lanka to China)
Omorgus indicus Harold, 1872 (India, Thailand, China)
Omorgus indigenus Scholtz, 1990 (Galapagos:Española Island)
Omorgus inflatus Loomis, 1922 (Arizona, Texas, Mexico)
Omorgus insignicollis Blackburn, 1896 (Australia)
Omorgus insignis Haaf, 1954 (Namibia, Angola)
Omorgus italicus Reiche, 1853 (Italy, India, China)
Omorgus litigiosus
Omorgus lobicollis Arrow, 1927 (southern Burma)
Omorgus loxus Vaurie, 1955 (Brazil to Mexico)
Omorgus lugubris Haaf, 1954 (Kenya, Tanzania)
Omorgus melancholicus (Fahraeus, 1857) (Madagascar, Africa)
Omorgus mentitor Blackburn, 1896 (Australia)
Omorgus mictlensis Deloya, 1995 (Mexico)
Omorgus mollis Arrow, 1927 (Indonesia, Malaysia)
Omorgus monachus (Herbst, 1790) (Mexico, Southern USA)
Omorgus mutabilis Haaf, 1954 (Africa)
Omorgus nanningensis Pittino, 2005 (China)
Omorgus niloticus Harold, 1872 (Africa)
Omorgus nocheles Scholtz, 1990 (Argentina)
Omorgus nodicollis Macleay, 1888 (Western Australia)
Omorgus nodosus (Robinson, 1940) (Texas)
Omorgus nomadicus Scholtz, 1980 (Saudi Arabia)
Omorgus obesus Scholtz, 1980 (Africa)
Omorgus omacanthus Harold, 1872 (India)
Omorgus pauliani Haaf, 1954 (Laos, Vietnam)
Omorgus persuberosus Vaurie, 1962 (South America)
Omorgus peruanus Erichson, 1847 (South America) (=Polynoncus peruanus)
Omorgus ponderosus Peringuey, 1901 (Africa)
Omorgus principalis Haaf, 1954 (Africa)
Omorgus procerus Harold, 1872 (Africa, Arabia)
Omorgus punctatus (Germar, 1824) (Mexico to Southern USA)
Omorgus quadridens
Omorgus radula (Erichson, 1843) (Africa)
''Omorgus rodriguezae Deloya, 2005 (Mexico)
Omorgus rubricans (Robinson, 1946) (Texas, Mexico)
Omorgus rusticus Fahraeus, 1857 (Africa)
Omorgus scabrosus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1818) (Canada to southern USA)
Omorgus scutellaris (Say, 1823) (Southern USA to Mexico)
Omorgus senegalensis Scholtz, 1983 (Senegal)
Omorgus spatulatus Vaurie, 1962 (Argentina)
Omorgus squalidus (Africa, Madagascar, Saudi Arabia)
Omorgus squamosus
Omorgus stellatus
Omorgus subcarinatus (MacLeay, 1864) (Australia, New Guinea)
Omorgus suberosus (Fabricius, 1775) (Spain, southern USA to South America, Australia)
Omorgus tessellatus LeConte, 1854 (Mexico)
Omorgus testudo Arrow, 1927 (southern Burma)
Omorgus texanus LeConte, 1854 (Texas)
Omorgus tomentosus (Robinson, 1941) (Mexico)
Omorgus tuberosus Klug, 1855 (Africa)
Omorgus tytus (Robinson, 1941) (USA)
Omorgus umbonatus LeConte, 1854 (Texas)
Omorgus unguicularis Haaf, 1954 (Africa)
Omorgus varicosus (Erichson, 1843) (Angola)
Omorgus villosus
Omorgus wittei Haaf, 1955 (Africa)
Omorgus zumpti Haaf, 1957 (Africa)


Phoberus capensis (Scholtz)


Polynoncus aeger (Guerin-Meneville, 1844) (South America)
Polynoncus aricensis (Gutierrez, 1950) (South America)
Polynoncus bifurcatus (Vaurie, 1962) (South America)
Polynoncus brasiliensis (Vaurie, 1962) (South America)
Polynoncus brevicollis (Eschscholtz, 1822) (South America)
Polynoncus bullatus (Curtis, 1845) (Chile, Argentina)
Polynoncus burmeisteri Pittino, 1987 (Argentina)
Polynoncus chilensis (Harold, 1872) (Chile, Argentina)
Polynoncus diffluens (Vaurie, 1962) (Chile)
Polynoncus ecuadorensis Vaurie, 1962 (Ecuador)
Polynoncus erugatus Scholtz, 1990 (Argentina)
Polynoncus galapagoensis (Van Dyke, 1953) (Galapagos Islands)
Polynoncus gemmifer (Blanchard, 1846) (South America)
Polynoncus gemmingeri (Harold, 1872) (Panama to Argentina)
Polynoncus gibberosus Scholtz, 1990 (Chile)
Polynoncus gordoni (Steiner, 1981) (Peru)
Polynoncus guttifer (Harold, 1868) (South America)
Polynoncus haafi Vaurie, 1962 (Argentina)
Polynoncus hemisphaericus (Burmeister, 1876) (Argentina, Chile)
Polynoncus juglans (Ratcliffe, 1978) (Brazil, Guyana)
Polynoncus longitarsis (Harold, 1872) (Argentina, Chile)
Polynoncus mirabilis Pittino, 1987 (Chile, Argentina)
Polynoncus neuquen (Vaurie, 1962) (Chile, Argentina)
Polynoncus parafurcatus (Pittino, 1987) (Argentina, Brazil)
Polynoncus patagonicus (Blanchard, 1846) (Argentina)
Polynoncus patriciae Pittino, 1987 (Argentina, Uruguay)
Polynoncus pedestris (Harold, 1872) (Argentina)
Polynoncus peruanus (Erichson, 1847) (South America)
Polynoncus pilularius (Germar, 1824) (South America)
Polynoncus sallei (Harold, 1872) (Madagascar?, Ecuador, Peru)
Polynoncus seymourensis (Mutchler, 1925) (Galapagos Islands)
Polynoncus tenebrosus (Harold, 1872) (Ecuador)


Trox acanthinus Harold, 1872 (Mexico)
Trox aculeatus Harold, 1872 (South Africa)
Trox aequalis Say, 1831 (Canada to Mexico)
Trox affinis Robinson, 1940 (USA)
Trox alatus Macleay, 1888 (Australia)
Trox alius Scholtz, 1986 (Western Australia)
Trox amictus Haaf, 1954 (Australia)
Trox antiquus Wickham, 1909 (fossil:oligocene, Florissant, USA)
Trox aphanocephalus Scholtz, 1986 (Australia)
Trox arcuatus Haaf, 1953 (South Africa)
Trox atrox LeConte, 1854 (USA)
Trox augustae Blackburn, 1892 (Australia)
Trox boucomonti Paulian, 1933 (China, Vietnam)
Trox braacki Scholtz, 1980 (South Africa)
Trox brahminus Pittino, 1985 (India to Vietnam)
Trox brincki Haaf, 1958 (Lesotho)
Trox cadaverinus Illiger, 1801 (Europe to China)
Trox caffer Harold, 1872 (South Africa)
Trox cambeforti Pittino, 1985 (China)
Trox cambodjanus Pittino, 1985 (Cambodia, Laos)
Trox candidus Harold, 1872 (Australia)
Trox capensis Scholtz, 1979 (South Africa)
Trox capillaris Say, 1823 (Canada to southern USA)
Trox carinicollis Scholtz, 1986 (Western Australia)
Trox ciliatus Blanchard, 1846 (Argentina, Bolivia)
Trox clathratus (Reiche, 1861) (Corsica)
Trox conjunctus Petrovitz, 1975 (China)
Trox consimilis Haaf, 1953 (Southern Africa)
Trox contractus Robinson, 1940 (Texas)
Trox coracinus Gmelin, 1788 (unknown distribution)
Trox cotodognanensis Compte, 1986 (Spain)
Trox cribrum Gené, 1836 (France, Sardinia)
Trox cricetulus Ádám, 1994 (Croatia, Spain)
Trox curvipes Harold, 1872 (Australia)
Trox cyrtus Haaf, 1953 (South Africa)
Trox demarzi Haaf, 1958 (Australia)
Trox dhaulagiri Paulus, 1972 (Nepal)
Trox dilaticollis Macleay, 1888 (Australia)
Trox dohrni Harold, 1871 (Western Australia)
Trox doiinthanonensis Masumoto, 1996 (Thailand)
Trox elderi Blackburn, 1892 (South Australia)
Trox elongatus Haaf, 1954 (Northern Australia)
Trox erinaceus LeConte, 1854 (South Carolina)
Trox euclensis Blackburn, 1892 (Australia)
Trox eversmanni Krynicky, 1832 (Central Europe to Siberia)
Trox fabricii Reiche, 1853 (Spain, Sicily to Northern Africa)
Trox fascicularis Wiedemann, 1821 (Southern Africa)
Trox fascifer LeConte, 1854 (California)
Trox floridanus Howden & Vaurie, 1957 (Florida)
Trox formosanus Nomura, 1973 (Taiwan)
Trox foveicollis Harold, 1857 (USA)
Trox frontera Vaurie, 1955 (Texas)
Trox gansuensis Ren, 2003 (China)
Trox gemmulatus Horn, 1874 (California)
Trox gigas Harold, 1872 (Australia)
Trox gonoderus Fairmaire, 1901 (Madagascar)
Trox granuliceps Haaf, 1954 (Australia)
Trox granulipennis Fairmaire, 1852 (Northern Africa to Spain and Middle East)
Trox gunki Scholtz, 1980 (South Africa)
Trox hamatus Robinson, 1940 (USA)
Trox hispidus (Pontoppidan, 1763) (Europe)
Trox horridus Fabricius, 1775 (South Africa)
Trox howdenorum Scholtz, 1986 (Western Australia)
Trox howelli Howden & Vaurie, 1957 (Florida, Texas)
Trox ineptus Balthasar, 1931 (Transbaikal)
Trox insularis Chevrolat, 1864 (Southern USA, Cuba)
Trox kerleyi Masumoto, 1996 (Thailand)
Trox kiuchii Masumoto, 1996 (Thailand)
Trox klapperichi Pittino, 1983 (Turkey to Saudi Arabia, Middle East)
Trox kyotensis Ochi & Kawahara, 2000 (Japan)
Trox lama Pittino, 1985 (Tibet)
Trox laticollis LeConte, 1854 (New York)
Trox leonardii Pittino, 1983 (Spain to North Africa, Israel)
Trox levis Haaf, 1953 (South Africa)
Trox litoralis Pittino, 1991 (South Europe: Italy to Greece)
Trox luridus Fabricius, 1781 (Southern Africa)
Trox lutosus Marsham, 1802 (Great Britain)
Trox mandli Balthasar, 1931 (Transbaikal)
Trox mariae Scholtz, 1986 (Western Australia)
Trox mariettae Scholtz, 1986 (North Australia)
Trox marshalli Haaf, 1957 (Australia)
Trox martini (Reitter, 1892) (North Africa)
Trox matsudai Ochi & Hori, 1999 (Japan)
Trox maurus Herbst, 1790 (unknown distribution)
Trox montanus Kolbe, 1891 (Africa)
Trox monteithi Scholtz, 1986 (Australia)
Trox morticinii Pallas, 1781 (Central Asia)
Trox mutsuensis Nomura, 1937 (Japan)
Trox nama Kolbe, 1908 (Southern Africa)
Trox nanniscus Peringuey, 1901 (South Africa)
Trox nasutus Harold, 1872 (South Africa)
Trox natalensis Haaf, 1954 (South Africa)
Trox necopinus Scholtz, 1986 (Zambia)
Trox niger Rossi, 1792
Trox nigrociliatus Kolbe, 1904 (Ethiopia)
Trox nigroscobinus Scholtz, 1986 (Western Australia)
Trox niponensis Lewis, 1895 (Japan)
Trox nodulosus Harold, 1872 (Sardinia, Corsica)
Trox nohirai Nakane, 1954 (Japan)
Trox novaecaledoniae Balthasar, 1966 (New Caledonia)
Trox opacotuberculatus Motschulsky, 1860 (Japan, Taiwan)
Trox oustaleti Scudder, 1879 (fossil: eocene; Nine-mile Creek, British Columbia)
Trox ovalis Haaf, 1957 (North Australia)
Trox pampeanus Burmeister, 1876 (Argentina)
Trox parvicollis Scholtz, 1986 (North Australia)
Trox pastillarius Blanchard, 1846 (South America)
Trox pellosomus Scholtz, 1986 (Australia)
Trox penicillatus Fahraeus, 1857 (South Africa)
Trox perhispidus Blackburn, 1904 (Australia)
Trox perlatus Geoffroy, 1762 (Great Britain to Spain and Italy)
Trox perrieri Fairmaire, 1899 (Madagascar)
Trox perrisii Fairmaire, 1868 (Europe, North Africa)
Trox placosalinus Ren, 2003 (China)
Trox planicollis Haaf, 1953 (Southern Africa)
Trox plicatus Robinson, 1940 (Southern USA)
Trox poringensis Ochi, Kon & Kawahara, 2005 (Borneo, Java)
Trox puncticollis Haaf, 1953 (Saudi Arabia)
Trox pusillus Peringuey, 1908 (Africa)
Trox quadridens Blackburn, 1892 (Australia)
Trox quadrimaculatus Ballion, 1870 ((Turkestan)
Trox quadrinodosus Haaf, 1954 (Australia)
Trox regalis Haaf, 1954 (Australia)
Trox rhyparoides (Harold, 1872) (Africa)
Trox rimulosus Haaf, 1957 (India)
Trox robinsoni Vaurie, 1955 (Canada to Texas)
Trox rotundulus Haaf, 1957 (Australia)
Trox rudebecki Haaf, 1958 (South Africa)
Trox sabulosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Great Britain to Siberia)
Trox salebrosus Macleay, 1872 (Australia)
Trox scaber (Linnaeus, 1767) (Holarctic, North Africa, South America, Australia)
Trox semicostatus Macleay, 1872 (Australia)
Trox setifer Waterhouse, 1875 (Japan)
Trox setosipennis Blackburn, 1904 (Australia)
Trox sonorae LeConte, 1854 (Canada to New Mexico)
Trox sordidatus Balthasar, 1936 (Southeastern Europe)
Trox sordidus LeConte, 1854 (Canada to Texas)
Trox spinulosus Robinson, 1940 (USA)
Trox squamiger Roth, 1851 (Africa, Arabia)
Trox squamosus Macleay, 1872 (Australia, New Guinea)
Trox stellatus Harold, 1872 (Western Australia)
Trox strandi Balthasar, 1936 (Algeria)
Trox striatus Melsheimer, 1846 (USA)
Trox strigosus Haaf, 1953 (South Africa)
Trox strzeleckensis Blackburn, 1895 (Australia)
Trox sugayai Masumoto & Kiuchi, 1995 (Japan)
Trox sulcatus Thunberg, 1787 (Southern Africa)
Trox taiwanus Masumoto, Ochi & Li, 2005 (Taiwan)
Trox talpa Fahraeus, 1857 (South Africa)
Trox tasmanicus Blackburn, 1904 (Tasmania)
Trox tatei Blackburn, 1892 (Australia)
Trox terrestris Say, 1825 (USA)
Trox tibialis Masumoto, Ochi & Li, 2005 (Taiwan)
Trox torpidus Harold, 1872 (Central America)
Trox transversus Reiche, 1856 (Greece, Syria, Turkey)
Trox trilobus Haaf, 1954 (Australia, New Guinea)
Trox tuberculatus (De Geer, 1774) (USA)
Trox uenoi Nomura, 1961 (Japan)
Trox unistriatus Palisot de Beauvois, 1818 (Canada to Texas)
Trox variolatus Melsheimer, 1846 (Canada to Mexico)
Trox villosus Haaf, 1954 (Australia)
Trox yamayai Nakane, 1983 (Japan)
Trox yangi Masumoto, Ochi & Li, 2005 (Taiwan)
Trox zoufali Balthasar, 1931 (Taiwan)


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