council

council

[koun-suhl]
council, ecumenical [Gr.,=universal], in Christendom, council of church leaders, the decisions of which are accepted by some segment of the church as authoritative, also called general council. Although councils can declare themselves ecumenical, this designation has often been applied retrospectively; even the Roman Catholic Church has no formal decree on the number of ecumenical councils. As with all councils, its canons usually begin with a detailed statement of the common faith. The acceptance of the canons is unequal; thus, Roman Catholics regard them as binding (canonical) only when a pope has subsequently ratified them, and many canons of several councils have never been accepted.

Recognized Councils

The following is the list of the general councils recognized by Roman Catholics (the numbering is the customary one, and the opening year is given): (1) 1 Nicaea, 325; (2) 1 Constantinople, 381; (3) Ephesus, 431; (4) Chalcedon, 451; (5) 2 Constantinople, 553; (6) 3 Constantinople, 680; (7) 2 Nicaea, 787; (8) 4 Constantinople, 869; (9) 1 Lateran, 1123; (10) 2 Lateran, 1139; (11) 3 Lateran, 1179; (12) 4 Lateran, 1215; (13) 1 Lyons, 1245; (14) 2 Lyons, 1274; (15) Vienne, 1311; (16) Constance, 1414; (17) Basel and Ferrara-Florence, 1431, 1438; (18) 5 Lateran, 1512; (19) Trent, 1545; (20) 1 Vatican, 1869; (21) 2 Vatican, 1962 (see separate articles on each council; e.g., Nicaea, First Council of). The Orthodox Eastern Church recognizes the first seven and counts the Trullan Synod of 692 as an ecumenical extension of the Third Council of Constantinople. The first council was the model for the rest.

Purposes of the Councils

The common purpose of the first eight councils was to determine whether specific theological novelties were orthodox or heretical (not orthodox). The rest of the councils, all held in Western Europe, have dealt chiefly with church discipline and morals. Two of them, the Second Council of Lyons and the Council of Ferrara-Florence, were occupied with abortive attempts at reconciliation between East and West. Conciliar theory, which held that an ecumenical council is superior to the pope, played a central role in attempts to heal the Great Schism. Conciliar theory was in its heyday at the Council of Constance (see Schism, Great). The Council of Trent, convened to deal with the Protestant Reformation, was probably the most far-reaching in its effects. Pope John XXIII established as one of the principal themes of the Second Vatican Council the reunion of all Christians with the Church of Rome.

Authority of the Councils

The traditional opinion is that when the bishops of the world unite to define belief in the light of what they have received from their predecessors, God will protect them from error. This is a manifestation of the infallibility of the teaching church, and papal infallibility is compared to it in the definition published by the First Vatican Council (see infallibility). Two famous councils that claimed in vain to be ecumenical are the Robber Council of Ephesus (see Eutyches) and the Council of Pisa during the Great Schism.

Protestants recognize the authority of the first four ecumenical councils, but, as first expressed by Martin Luther, do not regard ecumenical councils and their canons as binding on the conscience. Only when council decisions follow scripture do Protestants consider them authoritative. Nevertheless Protestant observers have officially attended the last two councils. The ecumenical movement among Protestants is not to be confused with an ecumenical council, although they share a similar aim.

Bibliography

See studies by L. Jaeger (tr. 1961), P. Hughes (1961), F. Dvornik (1961), and E. F. Jacobs (rev. ed. 1963).

In Britain, a regulation traditionally issued by the sovereign on the advice of the Privy Council. In modern practice, an order is issued only on the advice of ministers, and the minister in charge of the department concerned with the order's subject matter is responsible to Parliament for its contents. Most orders in council today are issued to implement legislation passed by Parliament.

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Christian ecumenical organization founded in 1948 in Amsterdam. It functions as a forum for Protestant and Eastern Orthodox denominations, which cooperate through the WCC on a variety of undertakings and explore doctrinal similarities and differences. It grew out of two post-World War I ecumenical efforts, the Life and Work Movement (which concentrated on practical activities) and the Faith and Order Movement (which focused on doctrinal issues and the possibility of reunion). The impetus for these two organizations sprang from the International Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910, the first such cooperative effort since the Reformation. The Roman Catholic church, though not a member of the WCC, sends representatives to its conferences. The more fundamentalist Protestant denominations have also refused to join.

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(1962–65) 21st ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, announced by Pope John XXIII. It has come to symbolize the church's readiness to acknowledge the circumstances of the modern world. Among the most notable of the 16 documents enacted were the “Dogmatic Constitution on the Church,” which treats church hierarchy and provides for greater involvement of laypeople in the church; the “Dogmatic Constitution of Divine Revelation,” which maintains an open attitude toward scholarly study of the Bible; the “Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy,” which provides for the use of vernacular languages in the mass in place of Latin; and the “Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the World of Today,” which acknowledges the profound changes humanity has experienced in the modern world and attempts to relate the church to contemporary culture. Observers from other Christian churches were invited to the council in a gesture of ecumenism.

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(1869–70) 20th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church. It was convoked by Pope Pius IX (1846–78) to address the rising influence of rationalism, materialism, and liberalism. The council, which was never formally dissolved, promulgated two doctrinal constitutions: Dei filius, which deals with faith, reason, and their interrelations; and Pastor aeternus, which treats the authority of the pope. After long debate, the council approved the doctrine of papal infallibility. The council recessed in the summer of 1870 but was unable to reconvene because Italian troops had occupied Rome. Pius suspended the council indefinitely on Oct. 20, 1870.

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Division of the United Nations whose primary purpose is to maintain international peace and security. The Security Council originally consisted of five permanent members—China (represented by the government on Taiwan until 1971), France, the United Kingdom, the U.S., and the Soviet Union (succeeded in 1991 by Russia)—and six rotating members elected by the United Nations General Assembly for two-year terms. In 1965 the number of nonpermanent members was increased to 10. UN members agree to abide by the Security Council's resolutions when they join. The Security Council investigates disputes that threaten international peace and advises on how to resolve them. To prevent or halt aggression, it may impose diplomatic or economic sanctions or authorize the use of military force. Each of the permanent members holds veto power in decisions on substantive matters, such as the application of sanctions. Decisions on both substantive and procedural matters require nine affirmative votes, including the affirmative vote of all five permanent members (though in practice a permanent member may abstain without impairing the validity of a decision).

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(1545–63) 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, which made sweeping reforms and laid down dogma clarifying nearly all doctrines contested by the Protestants. Convened by Pope Paul III at Trento in northern Italy, it served to revitalize Roman Catholicism in many parts of Europe. In its first period (1545–47) it accepted the Nicene Creed as the basis of Catholic faith, fixed the canon of the Old and New Testaments, set the number of sacraments at seven, and defined the nature and consequences of original sin; it also ruled against Martin Luther's doctrine of justification by faith. In its second period (1551–52) it confirmed the doctrine of transubstantiation and issued decrees on episcopal jurisdiction and clerical discipline. In the final period (1562–63) it defined the mass as a true sacrifice and issued statements on several other doctrinal issues. By the end of the 16th century, many of the abuses that had motivated the Protestant Reformation had disappeared, and the church had reclaimed many of its European followers.

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(1962–65) 21st ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, announced by Pope John XXIII. It has come to symbolize the church's readiness to acknowledge the circumstances of the modern world. Among the most notable of the 16 documents enacted were the “Dogmatic Constitution on the Church,” which treats church hierarchy and provides for greater involvement of laypeople in the church; the “Dogmatic Constitution of Divine Revelation,” which maintains an open attitude toward scholarly study of the Bible; the “Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy,” which provides for the use of vernacular languages in the mass in place of Latin; and the “Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the World of Today,” which acknowledges the profound changes humanity has experienced in the modern world and attempts to relate the church to contemporary culture. Observers from other Christian churches were invited to the council in a gesture of ecumenism.

Learn more about Vatican Council, Second with a free trial on Britannica.com.

U.S. agency that advises the president on domestic, foreign, and military policies related to national security. With the Central Intelligence Agency, it was established by the 1947 National Security Act. It provides the White House with a foreign-policy-making instrument independent of the State Department. It has four members—the president, vice president, and secretaries of state and defense—and its staff is headed by the national security adviser.

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(1869–70) 20th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church. It was convoked by Pope Pius IX (1846–78) to address the rising influence of rationalism, materialism, and liberalism. The council, which was never formally dissolved, promulgated two doctrinal constitutions: Dei filius, which deals with faith, reason, and their interrelations; and Pastor aeternus, which treats the authority of the pope. After long debate, the council approved the doctrine of papal infallibility. The council recessed in the summer of 1870 but was unable to reconvene because Italian troops had occupied Rome. Pius suspended the council indefinitely on Oct. 20, 1870.

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(1438–45) Ecumenical council held in an attempt to reunify the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. It was called by Pope Eugenius IV; the Eastern church was represented by Emperor John VIII Palaeologus and others. Fear of facing the Turks without Western support led the Eastern participants to sign the Decree of Union (1439), but on their return to Constantinople most renounced it. Union was officially declared in Hagia Sophia in 1452, but the following year the Ottoman Empire captured Constantinople, and the few partisans of the union fled. In 1448 a council of Eastern bishops condemned it officially. General support for the council and its goals strengthened the authority of the papacy and contributed to the failure of the conciliar movement.

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Organization of more than 40 European states formed to promote European unity, protect human rights, and facilitate social and economic progress. Established in 1949 by 10 western European states, it has devised international agreements on human rights and established a number of special bodies and expert committees on social, legal, and cultural issues. It is headquartered in Strasbourg, France. (The Council of Europe should not be confused with the European Council, which is a policy-making body of the European Union.)

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(1545–63) 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, which made sweeping reforms and laid down dogma clarifying nearly all doctrines contested by the Protestants. Convened by Pope Paul III at Trento in northern Italy, it served to revitalize Roman Catholicism in many parts of Europe. In its first period (1545–47) it accepted the Nicene Creed as the basis of Catholic faith, fixed the canon of the Old and New Testaments, set the number of sacraments at seven, and defined the nature and consequences of original sin; it also ruled against Martin Luther's doctrine of justification by faith. In its second period (1551–52) it confirmed the doctrine of transubstantiation and issued decrees on episcopal jurisdiction and clerical discipline. In the final period (1562–63) it defined the mass as a true sacrifice and issued statements on several other doctrinal issues. By the end of the 16th century, many of the abuses that had motivated the Protestant Reformation had disappeared, and the church had reclaimed many of its European followers.

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(1438–45) Ecumenical council held in an attempt to reunify the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. It was called by Pope Eugenius IV; the Eastern church was represented by Emperor John VIII Palaeologus and others. Fear of facing the Turks without Western support led the Eastern participants to sign the Decree of Union (1439), but on their return to Constantinople most renounced it. Union was officially declared in Hagia Sophia in 1452, but the following year the Ottoman Empire captured Constantinople, and the few partisans of the union fled. In 1448 a council of Eastern bishops condemned it officially. General support for the council and its goals strengthened the authority of the papacy and contributed to the failure of the conciliar movement.

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(1414–18) 16th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church. It was convened at the request of Emperor Sigismund to deal with three competing popes, examine the writings of Jan Hus and John Wycliffe, and reform the Church. National political rivalries divided the Council of Constance. Two of the three contending popes were deposed; the third abdicated, and in 1417 the council selected a new pope, Martin V. The Council condemned propositions of Hus and Wycliffe, and Hus was burned at the stake by secular authorities.

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(451) Fourth ecumenical council of the Christian Church, held in Chalcedon (modern Kadiköy, Tur.). Called by the emperor Marcian, it approved the creeds of Nicaea (325) and Constantinople (381; later known as the Nicene Creed). It also approved the Tome of Pope Leo I confirming the two distinct natures in Christ and rejecting the Monophysite heresy. The council then explained these doctrines in its own confession of faith. The council disciplined clergy and declared Jerusalem and Constantinople patriarchates.

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(1431–49) Council of the Roman Catholic church held in Basel, Switz. It addressed the question of ultimate authority in the church and the problem of the Hussite heresy. Its members renewed the decree Sacrosancta (issued by the Council of Constance), which declared the council's authority to be greater than the pope's, and voted to receive most Hussites back into the church on terms opposed by the pope. In 1437 Pope Eugenius IV transferred the council to Ferrara to negotiate reunion with the Orthodox church more effectively, but several members remained in Basel as a rump council and declared Eugenius deposed. They then elected a new pope, Felix V, and the renewed schism cost the council its prestige and popular support. On the death of Eugenius, his successor, Nicholas V, obliged the antipope Felix to abdicate, ended the rump council, and brought the conciliar movement to a close.

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or Comecon

Organization founded in 1949 to facilitate and coordinate the economic development of Soviet-bloc countries. Its original members were the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania; other members joined later, including Albania (1949) and the German Democratic Republic (1950). Its accomplishments included the organization of Eastern Europe's railroad grid, the creation of the International Bank for Economic Cooperation, and the construction of the “Friendship” oil pipeline. After the political upheavals in Eastern Europe in the late 1980s, it largely lost its purpose and power. In 1991 it was renamed the Organization for International Economic Cooperation.

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(1414–18) 16th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church. It was convened at the request of Emperor Sigismund to deal with three competing popes, examine the writings of Jan Hus and John Wycliffe, and reform the Church. National political rivalries divided the Council of Constance. Two of the three contending popes were deposed; the third abdicated, and in 1417 the council selected a new pope, Martin V. The Council condemned propositions of Hus and Wycliffe, and Hus was burned at the stake by secular authorities.

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(451) Fourth ecumenical council of the Christian Church, held in Chalcedon (modern Kadiköy, Tur.). Called by the emperor Marcian, it approved the creeds of Nicaea (325) and Constantinople (381; later known as the Nicene Creed). It also approved the Tome of Pope Leo I confirming the two distinct natures in Christ and rejecting the Monophysite heresy. The council then explained these doctrines in its own confession of faith. The council disciplined clergy and declared Jerusalem and Constantinople patriarchates.

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(1431–49) Council of the Roman Catholic church held in Basel, Switz. It addressed the question of ultimate authority in the church and the problem of the Hussite heresy. Its members renewed the decree Sacrosancta (issued by the Council of Constance), which declared the council's authority to be greater than the pope's, and voted to receive most Hussites back into the church on terms opposed by the pope. In 1437 Pope Eugenius IV transferred the council to Ferrara to negotiate reunion with the Orthodox church more effectively, but several members remained in Basel as a rump council and declared Eugenius deposed. They then elected a new pope, Felix V, and the renewed schism cost the council its prestige and popular support. On the death of Eugenius, his successor, Nicholas V, obliged the antipope Felix to abdicate, ended the rump council, and brought the conciliar movement to a close.

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Council is a city in Adams County, Idaho, United States. The population was 816 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Adams County.

Geography

Council is located at (44.730083, -116.436213).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.7 square miles (1.9 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 816 people, 339 households, and 223 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,121.5 people per square mile (431.6/km²). There were 425 housing units at an average density of 584.1/sq mi (224.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.57% White, 1.72% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, and 1.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.59% of the population.

There were 339 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.87.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, and 18.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 103.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,375, and the median income for a family was $30,000. Males had a median income of $26,667 versus $11,691 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,170. About 11.7% of families and 15.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.1% of those under age 18 and 19.0% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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