Steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (see adrenal gland). It participates in the regulation of the conversion of proteins to carbohydrates, and to some extent it regulates salt metabolism. Introduced medically in 1948 for its anti-inflammatory effect to treat arthritis, it has been largely replaced by related compounds that do not produce its undesired side effects, which include edema, increased stomach acidity, and imbalances in sodium, potassium, and nitrogen metabolism. Seealso Cushing syndrome.
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One of cortisone's effects on the body, and a potentially harmful side effect when administered clinically, is the suppression of the immune system. This could be the explanation for the apparent correlation between high stress and sickness. The suppression of the immune system may be important in the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as severe IgE-mediated allergies.
Cortisone is less powerful than a similar steroid cortisol. Cortisol is responsible for 95% of the effects of the glucocorticosteroids while cortisone is about 4 or 5%. Corticosterone is even less important. Cortisol decreases the uptake of glucose by cells and increases glucose release by the liver. This may cause hyperglycemia in a well-fed state but can maintain blood glucose levels in (stressful) fasting states.
FINDINGS OF FACT; Cortisone: Shots in the Dark?; Some Athletes Get Cortisone Shots to Play Through Pain. The Rest of Us May Not Need Them
Jun 27, 2000; You played in the company softball tournament last weekend, and your knee is the size of a cantaloupe. It won't quit hurting....
Measurement of Late-Night Salivary Cortisol and Cortisone by LC-MS/ MS to Assess Preanalytical Sample Contamination with Topical Hydrocortisone
May 01, 2012; To the Editor:Measurement of increased latenight salivary cortisol (LNSC)1 is now a mainstay in the diagnosis of endogenous...