Definitions

Coronel

Coronel

Coronel, city (1990 est. pop. 74,090), S central Chile, a port on the Pacific Ocean. It is a major coaling station and a shipping point for lumber and the coal from nearby mines. In a naval engagement off Coronel on Nov. 1, 1914, during World War I, German Admiral Graf von Spee defeated a British squadron under Sir Christopher Cradock, a triumph offset later by the battle of the Falklands.
Coronel
align="center" width="140px"
Founded August 30, 1849
Original name Villa de Coronel
Region Biobío Region
Area
 - City Proper

 279 km²
Altitude 16m
Population
 - City (2002)
 - Density (city proper)

95.528 Inhabitants
342,39 /km²
Time zone Santiago Time Zone, UTC- 4
Telephone prefix 41
Postal code 3349001
Noun Coronelino
Day August 30 week
Mayor Rene Carvajal (2004-2008)
Official site http://www.coronel.cl

Coronel is a Chilean city, located in the Concepción Province, VIII Región del Biobío. It is the head of Departamento de Lautaro, then called Departamento de Coronel. The total area of the city is 279 km² and their population reach about 95,528 people(2002 census); almost the totality of the population is urban.

The territory within the city limits:

The Santa María Island also forms part of the city, which is represented there by a municipal delegate.

History

The city of Coronel is located in a sandy platform that goes from the mouth of the Biobío river to the Arauco Gulf bay, a muddy landscape, full of forests, typical of the region.

This forested and muddy landscape was what the first Spanish conquistadors and settlers found when arriving. It is characteristic all over the Provincia de Arauco. Muddy big plains enclosed by high mountains. The vegetation and forests covered most part of the area until very close to the coast.

Like all territory in Bío-Bío to the South, this zone was populated by the "Mapuches". The Spaniards called “Arauco” to all the coastal territory to the South of the mentioned river and therefore its peoples “araucanos”. This region became the first recognized and explored by the conquistadores because, as it appeared to have a high population density, much of whom could be used to work in the gold washing.

The indigenous population of the Coronel bay, was located enclosed into a war zone called Butanmapu de la costa. Realizing some analysis about this zone population, it is probable that before the Spaniards coming, lived in this region the half of the mapuche population, 'cause to the rich that offers the earth, and by the description that Spaniards makes of this zone. Further the tribus density was fairly distributed in the oriental and occidental of the Nahuelbuta's Mountain Rage highest points.

This Butanmapu was compoused by six people distributed in the coast, from the south riber of the Bìobìo and the north riber of the Toltèn. From the first river to the actual site of the Arauco it corresponds to the city "Aillaregue de Marihueñu", the largest of all. There lived about twelve tribes, occupying each one a valley. If we trust in the actual troponimy, based in a far Indian therm , the coast and inside of Coronel bay corresponded to the tribe of Pailahuenu

The surface offered big extensions for the animals domestication , and good water for the human life. Big forests had to keep safe this zone, and the wood obtained would be satisfacted the consume of their morators.

Resuming, we can say, the populational importance that had to have the Coronel bay – before the Spaniards coming – comparating with neigh surfaces, and the contrast happens by describing their evolution during the colony to almost disappear completely.

Also we have to say that united to Lota , is pioneer city in the coal industry in Chile, whose empresary Federico Schwager, formed the minerys community.

The Coal Instalation existants are Chiflones 1, 2, 3, 4, Pique Santa Maria, and Pique Arenas Blancas,this was the last mine closed, because of a grisu gas explosion, where died 21 miners. This mine is the deepest in Sudamérica with 1000 methers. Schwager also is a part from Coronel,a population where oldly it was able the first mines.

In the 90's, the coal mines closed almost totally, producing a lot of cesanty. Millions of people where perjudicated and most of theirs emigrated to other place finding best possibilities. In November 1, 1914, was declarated in front of this city bay, the world-wide famous Batalla de Coronel between British and Germans, violating the Chilean neutrality in that conflict.

Climate

The weather of Coronel is Templated Mediterranean, of the kind of the Coast Mountain Rage with a moderated amplitude. The Coronel situation in the occidental vertient of the coast, makes to receive in front the winds of W and NW ligated to the bad weather conditions that contributed to reforce the precipitations. Their neighbour with the Pacific is involved in the annual variations of the temperature. The middle Tº in summer is 17 °C and in winter 8 °C.

In 2007, Coronel lived one of the winters colder than 40 years (infraregister). A cold wave coming from the South Pole left down temperatures all the winter specially in July and August, where the thermometers marked about -6 °C, but in 2006 the coldest temperature was 5 °C. The coldest day was in August 15 at 11.47 A.M., it was registrated -5.9 °C

The rain disminuyed considerably, Coronel registered a rate of 75 cm falls during 2007, in 2006 falls 145 cm over the city, so, 70 cm of rain water among both years.

The 2008 summer was very hot, the max registered in February 9 at 17.00, was 31 °C. However, the strongest winds up to 60 km/h provenients from the S made improvise a bit the hot during summer.

The humidity between April-October doesn't downs from the 75% present in the air, what helps to get down the real feel, that without considering the cold winds from the north or the south.

For the 2008 winter it hopes temperatures to -10 °C and a down of 20% of rain related to 2007. But the rain accumulated to June superated to the last year and left a 70% profit respecting to June 2007, from 31.2 cm it accumulated to June 20 2008 47.3 cm.

The climate for this winter is not certain, it could be more rainy or more dry. It could be coldly, hot or with normal temperatures.

Namesakes

There are other places in Chile with similar names.

References

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