Nitroglycerin, beta-blockers, and calcium-channel blockers are often used for control of angina. Aspirin, with its ability to inhibit blood clots, cholesterol-lowering drugs (e.g., simvastatin), and estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women all appear to have a protective effect against eventual heart attack. If the buildup of plaque has progressed, an invasive or surgical procedure is often necessary, although a combination of a strict low-fat diet, stress management, and exercise has been found to reverse the disease. The most common procedure is angioplasty with a balloon catheter. The use of the balloon catheter often can be complicated by cracks or weakening of the walls of the vessels and may lead to rapid reclogging of the vessel. Another procedure is coronary artery bypass surgery, which splices veins or internal mammary arteries to the affected coronary artery in order to bypass the atherosclerotic blockage and supply blood to the heart muscle. A cold laser may be used to remove atherosclerotic plaques with bursts of ultraviolet light. It does little damage to the arteries and leaves the walls of the vessels smooth, without the burning and scarring created by hot lasers. Mechanical cutting devices, called atherotomes, are sometimes to ream atherosclerotic plaque material from the vessel in a procedure called atherectomy.
Progressive reduction of blood supply to the heart muscle due to narrowing or blocking of a coronary artery (see atherosclerosis). Short-term oxygen deprivation can cause angina pectoris. Long-term, severe oxygen depletion causes a heart attack. Coronary bypass or angioplasty is needed if medication and diet do not control the disease.
Learn more about coronary heart disease with a free trial on Britannica.com.
CAD is the leading cause of death in the U.S. While the symptoms and signs of coronary artery disease are noted in the advanced state of disease, most individuals with coronary artery disease show no evidence of disease for decades as the disease progresses before the first onset of symptoms, often a "sudden" heart attack, finally arise. After decades of progression, some of these atheromatous plaques may rupture and (along with the activation of the blood clotting system) start limiting blood flow to the heart muscle. The disease is the most common cause of sudden death, and is also the most common reason for death of men and women over 20 years of age. According to present trends in the United States, half of healthy 40-year-old males will develop CAD in the future, and one in three healthy 40-year-old women. According to the Guinness Book of Records, Northern Ireland is the country with the most occurrences of CAD. By contrast, the Maasai of Africa have almost no heart disease.
As the degree of coronary artery disease progresses, there may be near-complete obstruction of the lumen of the coronary artery, severely restricting the flow of oxygen-carrying blood to the myocardium. Individuals with this degree of coronary artery disease typically have suffered from one or more myocardial infarctions (heart attacks), and may have signs and symptoms of chronic coronary ischemia, including symptoms of angina at rest and flash pulmonary edema.
A distinction should be made between myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction. Ischemia means that the amount of oxygen supplied to the tissue is inadequate to supply the needs of the tissue. When the myocardium becomes ischemic, it does not function optimally. When large areas of the myocardium becomes ischemic, there can be impairment in the relaxation and contraction of the myocardium. If the blood flow to the tissue is improved, myocardial ischemia can be reversed. Infarction means that the tissue has undergone irreversible death due to lack of sufficient oxygen-rich blood.
An individual may develop a rupture of an atheromatous plaque at any stage of the spectrum of coronary artery disease. The acute rupture of a plaque may lead to an acute myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Myocardial infarction usually results from the sudden occlusion of a coronary artery when a plaque ruptures, activating the clotting system and atheroma-clot interaction fills the lumen of the artery to the point of sudden closure. The narrowing of the lumen of the heart artery before sudden closure is often not severe, according to clinical research completed in the late 1990s and using IVUS examinations within 6 months prior to a heart attack. High grade stenoses as such exceeding 75% blockage, such as detected by stress testing while carrying much higher individual risk for sudden closure, were found to be responsible for only 14% of acute heart attacks because they are rarer compared to less severe narrowings. The events leading up to plaque rupture are not understood despite many theories. Myocardial infarction is almost never caused by temporary spasm of the artery wall occluding the lumen, a condition also associated with atheromatous plaque and CAD.
CAD is associated with smoking, diabetes, and hypertension. A family history of early CAD is one of the less important predictors of CAD. Most of the familial association of coronary artery disease are related to common dietary habits. Screening for CAD includes evaluating high-density and low-density lipoprotein (cholesterol) levels and triglyceride levels. Despite much press, most of the alternative risk factors including homocysteine, C-reactive protein (CRP), Lipoprotein (a), coronary calcium and more sophisticated lipid analysis have added little if any additional value to the conventional risk factors of smoking, diabetes and hypertension.
Angina that occurs regularly with activity, after heavy meals, or at other predictable times is termed stable angina and is associated with high grade narrowings of the heart arteries. The symptoms of angina are often treated with betablocker therapy such as metoprolol or atenolol. Nitrate preparations such as nitroglycerin, which come in short-acting and long-acting forms are also effective in relieving symptoms but are not known to reduce the chances of future heart attacks. Many other more effective treatments, especially of the underlying atheromatous disease, have been developed.
Angina that changes in intensity, character or frequency is termed unstable. Unstable angina may precede myocardial infarction, and requires urgent medical attention. It may be treated with oxygen, intravenous nitroglycerin, and aspirin. Interventional procedures such as angioplasty may be done.
No one knows exactly what causes “Cardiac Syndrome X” and it is unlikely to have a single cause. Today, we speculate that the major contributing factor to “Cardiac Syndrome X” is “microvascular dysfunction”: The term “microvascular” refers to very small blood vessels and, in this case, very small arteries (arterioles, capillaries) of the heart. Studies have also shown that people with “Cardiac Syndrome X” have enhanced pain perception, meaning they feel chest pain more intensely than the average person.
The large majority of women have the garden variety of coronary artery disease. Rarely, women with “Cardiac Syndrome X” have typical anginal syndromes that are not associated with the presence of atherosclerotic plaques; that is, the localized blockages are absent. Scientists speculate that the blood vessels in these women are diffuse abnormal. Some have falsely claim that the entire lining of the artery becomes thickened throughout, making the plaques flush with the wall of the artery without any scientific proof. On cardiac catheterization their coronary arteries appear smooth-walled and normal, though they may look "small" in diameter. By the way: in general, female coronary arteries (like all arteries) are somewhat smaller than in males.
“Cardiac Syndrome X” have never been shown to cause acute heart attacks (myocardial infarction) despite much speculation. The prognosis with syndrome-X coronary artery disease is also known to be better than with typical coronary artery disease, but this is not a benign condition since it can be quite disabling. It is not completely clear why women are more likely than men to suffer from "Syndrome X"; however, hormones and other risk factors unique to women may play a role. Women’s blood vessels are exposed to changing levels of oestrogen throughout their lives, first during regular menstrual cycles and later during and after menopause as oestrogen levels decline with age. Oestrogen affects how blood vessels narrow and widen and how they respond to injury, so changes in oestrogen levels mean changes in the reactivity of the blood vessels. Women’s vessels may be “programmed” for more changes than men’s vessels, which could increase the risk of having problems in the lining of the arteries (endothelial cells) and the smooth muscle cells in the walls of the arteries. The endothelial dysfunction is likely to be multifactorial in these patients and it is conceivable that risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking can contribute to its development. Most patients with Syndrome X are postmenopausal women and oestrogen deficiency has been therefore proposed as a pathogenic factor in female patients. In addition to changing hormone levels, there are several other risk conditions for blood vessel problems that are unique to women, such as preeclampsia (a problem associated with high blood pressure during pregnancy) and delivering a low-birth weight baby. Of course, despite these issues women, the female gender as a whole is protective against coronary artery disease.
The diagnosis of “Cardiac Syndrome X” - the rare coronary artery disease that is more common in women, as mentioned, an “exclusion” diagnosis. Therefore, usually the same tests are used as in any patient with the suspicion of coronary artery disease:
Significant, but indirect risk factors include:
Risk factors can be classified as
An increasingly growing number of other physiological markers and homeostatic mechanisms are currently under scientific investigation. Patients with CAD and those trying to prevent CAD are advised to avoid fats that are readily oxidized (e.g., saturated fats and trans-fats), limit carbohydrates and processed sugars to reduce production of Low density lipoproteins, triacylglycerol and apolipoprotein-B. It is also important to keep blood pressure normal, exercise and stop smoking. These measures reduces the development of heart attacks. Recent studies have shown that dramatic reduction in LDL levels can cause regression of coronary artery disease in as many as 2/3 of patients after just one year of sustained treatment.
The consumption of trans fat (commonly found in hydrogenated products such as margarine) has been shown to cause the development of endothelial dysfunction, a precursor to atherosclerosis.The consumption of trans fatty acids has been shown to increase the risk of coronary artery disease
Foods containing fiber, potassium, nitric oxide (in green leafy vegetables), monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, saponins, or lecithin are said to lower cholesterol levels. Foods high in grease, salt, trans fat, or saturated fat are said to raise cholesterol levels.
Regarding healthy women, the more recent Women's Health Study randomized controlled trial found insignficant benefit from aspirin in the reduction of cardiac events; however there was a signficant reduction in stroke. Subgroup analysis showed that all benefit was confined to women over 65 years old. In spite of the insignficant benefit for women < 65 years old, recent practice guidelines by the American Heart Association recommend to 'consider' aspirin in 'healthy women' <65 years of age 'when benefit for ischemic stroke prevention is likely to outweigh adverse effects of therapy'.
Omega-3 fatty acids are also found in some plant sources including flax seed oil, hemp seed oil, and walnuts. Plant sources may be safer as fish products have been shown to contain heavy metals and other fat soluble pollutants.
A more controversial link is that between Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis. While this intracellular organism has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques, evidence is inconclusive as to whether it can be considered a causative factor. Treatment with antibiotics in patients with proven atherosclerosis has not demonstrated a decreased risk of heart attacks or other coronary vascular diseases.
Since the 1990s the search for new treatment options for coronary artery disease patients, particularly for so called "no-option" coronary patients, focused on usage of angiogenesis and (adult) stem cell therapies. Numerous clinical trials were performed, either applying protein (angiogenic growth factor) therapies, such as FGF-1 or VEGF, or cell therapies using different kinds of adult stem cell populations. Research is still going on - with first promising results particularly for FGF-1 and utilization of endothelial progenitor cells.