Due to its high electric conductivity, pure electrolytic copper is used mostly for making of electrical cables.
|Family||Principal alloying element||UNS numbers|
|Copper alloys, brass||Zinc (Zn)||C1xxxx–C4xxxx,C66400–C69800|
|Phosphor bronzes||Tin (Sn)||C5xxxx|
|Aluminium bronzes||Aluminium (Al)||C60600–C64200|
|Silicon bronzes||Silicon (Si)||C64700–C66100|
|Copper nickel, nickel silvers||Nickel (Ni)||C7xxxx|
|Name||Nominal composition||Form and condition||Yield strength||Tensile strength||Elongation||Hardness||Comments|
|Copper (ASTM B1, B2, B3, B152, B124, R133)||Cu 99.9||Annealed||10||32||45||42||Electrical equipment, roofing, screens|
| || ||Cold-drawn||40||45||15||90|| |
| || ||Cold-rolled||40||46||5||100|| |
|Gilding metal (ASTM B36)||Cu 95.0, Zn 5.0||Cold-rolled||50||56||5||114||Coins, ammunition casings|
|Cartridge brass (ASTM B14, B19, B36, B134, B135)||Cu 70.0, Zn 30.0||Cold-rolled||63||76||8||155||Good for cold-working; radiators, hardware, electrical|
|Phosphor bronze (ASTM B103, B139, B159)||Cu 70.0, Sn 10.0, P 0.25||Spring temper||—||122||4||241||High fatigue-strength and spring qualities|
|Yellow or High brass (ASTM B36, B134, B135)||Cu 65.0, Zn 35.0||Annealed||18||48||60||55||Good corrosion resistance|
| || ||Cold-drawn||55||70||15||115|| |
| || ||Cold-rolled (HT)||60||74||10||180|| |
|Manganese bronze (ASTM 138)||Cu 58.5, Zn 39.2, Fe 1.0, Sn 1.0, Mn 0.3||Annealed||30||60||30||95||Forgings|
| || ||Cold-drawn||50||80||20||180|| |
|Naval brass (ASTM B21)||Cu 60.0, Zn 39.25, Sn 0.75||Annealed||22||56||40||90||Resistance to salt corrosion|
| || ||Cold-drawn||40||65||35||150|| |
|Muntz metal (ASTM B111)||Cu 60.0, Zn 40.0||Annealed||20||54||45||80||Condensor tubes|
|Aluminium bronze (ASTM B169 alloy A, B124, B150)||Cu 92.0, Al 8.0||Annealed||25||70||60||80||—|
| || ||Hard||65||105||7||210|| |
|Beryllium copper (ASTM B194, B196, B197)||Cu 97.75, Be 2.0, Co or Ni 0.25||Annealed, solution-treated||32||70||45||B60 (Rockwell)||Electrical, valves, pumps|
| || ||Cold-rolled||104||110||5||B81 (Rockwell)|| |
|Free-cutting brass||Cu 62.0, Zn 35.5, Pb 2.5||Cold-drawn||44||70||18||B80 (Rockwell)||Screws, nuts, gears, keys|
|Nickel silver (ASTM B112)||Cu 65.0, Zn 17.0, Ni 18.0||Annealed||25||58||40||70||Hardware|
| || ||Cold-rolled||70||85||4||170|| |
|Nickel silver (ASTM B149)||Cu 76.5, Ni 12.5, Pb 9.0, Sn 2.0||Cast||18||35||15||55||Easy to machine; ornaments, plumbing|
|Cupronickel (ASTM B111, B171)||Cu 88.35, Ni 10.0, Fe 1.25, Mn 0.4||Annealed||22||44||45||–||Condensor, salt-water pipes|
| || ||Cold-drawn tube||57||60||15||–|| |
|Cupronickel||Cu 70.0, Ni 30.0||Wrought||–||–||–||–||Heat-exchange equipment, valves|
|Red brass (ASTM B30 4A)||Cu 85.0, Zn 5.0, Pb 5.0, Sn 5.0||Cast||17||35||25||60||—|
A brass is an alloy of copper with zinc. Brasses are usually yellow in color. The zinc content can vary between few % to about 40%; as long as it is kept under 15%, it does not markedly decrease corrosion resistance of copper.
Brasses can be sensitive to selective leaching corrosion under certain conditions, when zinc is leached from the alloy (dezincification), leaving behind a spongy copper structure.
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