In astronomy, a galactic latitude or longitude, useful for describing the relative positions and motions of components of the Milky Way Galaxy. Galactic latitude is measured in degrees north or south of the plane of the Milky Way. Galactic longitude is measured in degrees east of the galactic centre in the constellation Sagittarius.
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Investigation of geometric objects using coordinate systems. Because René Descartes was the first to apply algebra to geometry, it is also known as Cartesian geometry. It springs from the idea that any point in two-dimensional space can be represented by two numbers and any point in three-dimensional space by three. Because lines, circles, spheres, and other figures can be thought of as collections of points in space that satisfy certain equations, they can be explored via equations and formulas rather than graphs. Most of analytic geometry deals with the conic sections. Because these are defined using the notion of fixed distance, each section can be represented by a general equation derived from the distance formula.
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The typical CMM is composed of three axes, an X, Y and Z. These axes are orthogonal to each other in a typical three dimensional coordinate system. Each axis has a very accurate scale system that indicates the location of that axis. All three axes are displayed on a digital readout. The probe is used to touch different spots on the part being measured. The machine then uses the X,Y,Z coordinates of each of these points to determine size and position. There are newer models that have probes that drag along the surface of the part taking points at specified intervals. This method of CMM inspection is more accurate than the conventional touch-probe method and most times faster as well. The next generation of scanning, known as laser scanning, is advancing very quickly. This method uses laser beams that are projected against the surface of the part. Many thousands of points can then be taken and used to not only check size and position, but to create a 3D image of the part as well. This "point-cloud data" can then be transferred to CAD software to create a working 3D model of the part. The laser scanner is often used to facilitate the "reverse engineering" process. This is the process of taking an existing part, measuring it to determine its size, and creating engineering drawings from these measurements. This is most often necessary in cases where engineering drawings may no longer exist or are unavailable for the particular part that needs replacement.
A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is also a device used in manufacturing and assembly processes to test a part or assembly against the design intent. By precisely recording the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the target, points are generated which can then be analyzed via regression algorithms for the construction of features. These points are collected by using a probe that is positioned manually by an operator or automatically via Direct Computer Control (DCC).
The machines are available in a wide range of sizes and designs with a variety of different probe technologies. They can be controlled and operated manually, or by CNC or PC controls. They are offered in various configurations such as benchtop, free-standing, handheld and portable.
As well as the traditional three axis machines (as pictured above), CMMs are now also available in a variety of other forms. These include CMM arms that use angular measurements taken at the joints of the arm to calculate the position of the stylus tip. Such arm CMMs are often used where their portablity is an advantage over traditional fixed bed CMMs. Because CMM arms imitate the flexibility of a human arm they are also often able to reach the insides of complex parts that could not be probed using a standard three axis machine.
A further development was the addition of motors for driving each axis. Operators no longer had to physically touch the machine but could drive each axis using a handbox with joysticks in much the same way as with modern remote controlled cars. Measurement accuracy and precision improved dramatically with the invention of the electronic touch trigger probe. The pioneer of this new probe device was David McMurtry who subsequently formed what is now Renishaw Plc, even today the driving force behind many developments in the CMM field. Although still a contact device, the probe had a spring loaded steel ball (later ruby ball) stylus. As the probe touched the surface of the component the stylus deflected and simultaneously sent the X.Y,Z coordinate information to the computer. Measurement errors caused by individual operators became fewer and the stage was set for the introduction of CNC operations and the coming of age of CMM's.
Optical probes are lens-CCD-systems, which are moved like the mechanical ones, and are aimed at the point of interest, instead of touching the material. The captured image of the surface will be enclosed in the borders of a measuring window, until the residue is adequate to contrast between black and white zones. The dividing curve can be calculated to a point, which is the wanted measuring point in space. The horizontal information on the CCD is 2D (XY) and the vertical position is the position of the complete probing system on the stand Z-drive (or other device component). This allows entire 3D-probing.
Optical probes and/or laser probes can be used (if possible in combination), which change CMM's to measuring microscopes or multi sensor measuring machines. Fringe projection systems, theodolite triangulation systems or laser distant and triangulation systems are not called measuring machines, but the measuring result is the same: a space point. Laser probes are used to detect the distance between the surface and the reference point on the end of the kinematic chain (i.e.: end of the Z-drive component). This can use an interferometrical, a light deflection or half beam shadowing principle.
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