Coolidge, Calvin

Coolidge, Calvin

Coolidge, Calvin, 1872-1933, 30th President of the United States (1923-29), b. Plymouth, Vt. John Calvin Coolidge was a graduate of Amherst College and was admitted to the bar in 1897. He practiced (1897-1919) law in Northampton, Mass., entered state politics as a Republican, and rose steadily in the party. He served (1910-11) as mayor of Northampton, was a member of the Massachusetts state senate from 1912 to 1915 (its president after 1914), and was (1916-19) lieutenant governor before serving (1919-21) as governor. Coolidge rose to national prominence when he used the militia to end the Boston police strike in 1919. In 1920 he was nominated as Republican candidate for the vice presidency and was elected with Warren G. Harding. After Harding died, Coolidge took (Aug. 3, 1923) the oath of office as President. Untouched by the scandals of the Harding administration, he was easily elected to a full term in 1924. His personal honesty and New England simplicity appealed to the American people, and his unquestioning faith in the conservative business values of laissez faire reflected the national mood. Coolidge's policies were aggressively pro-business. Through his appointees he transformed the Federal Trade Commission from an agency intended to regulate corporations into one dominated by big business. He twice vetoed (1927, 1928) the McNary-Haugen bill to aid agriculture and pocket-vetoed (1928) a bill for government operation of the Muscle Shoals hydroelectric plant. The presence in his cabinet of Herbert C. Hoover and Andrew W. Mellon added to the business tone of his administration, and Coolidge supported Mellon's program of tax cuts and economy in government. Through his public statements he encouraged the reckless stock market speculation of the late 1920s and left the nation unprepared for the economic collapse that followed. Coolidge chose not to seek renomination in 1928. After leaving office he retired to Northampton to write newspaper and magazine articles and his autobiography (1929, repr. 1989). As first lady, his wife, Grace A. Goodhue Coolidge, was much admired for her poise and charm. A selection of his press conferences was edited by H. H. Quint and R. H. Ferrell (1964).

See biographies by C. M. Fuess (1940), D. R. McCoy (1967, repr. 1988), J. Abels (1969), and W. A. White (1938, repr. 1973).

Calvin Coolidge.

(born July 4, 1872, Plymouth, Vt., U.S.—died Jan. 5, 1933, Northampton, Mass.) 30th president of the U.S. (1923–29). He practiced law in Massachusetts from 1897 and served as lieutenant governor before being elected governor in 1918. He gained national attention by calling out the state guard during the Boston Police Strike in 1919. At the 1920 Republican convention, “Silent Cal” was nominated for vice president and elected on a ticket with Warren G. Harding. When Harding died in office in 1923, Coolidge became president. He restored confidence in an administration discredited by scandals and won the presidential election in 1924, easily defeating Democrat John W. Davis and Progressive Robert La Follette. He vetoed measures to provide farm relief and bonuses to World War I veterans. His presidency was marked by apparent prosperity. Congress maintained a high protective tariff and instituted tax reductions that favoured capital. Coolidge declined to run for a second term. His conservative policies of domestic and international inaction have come to symbolize the era between World War I and the Great Depression.

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Coolidge is a city in Pinal County, Arizona, United States. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 8,154.

Arizona Highway 87 and Arizona Highway 287 pass through the town. Coolidge is 56 miles southeast of Phoenix, and 69 miles northwest of Tucson. It is 21 miles northeast of Casa Grande and 11 miles southwest of Florence. Picacho Reservoir is just 11 miles south of town.

Coolidge is home of the Casa Grande Ruins National Monument. The monument was the first historic site to receive protected status by the United States Government in 1892. The ancient city was built about 1200 A.D. by the Hohokam people.

Coolidge was incorporated as a city in 1945. It is named for Calvin Coolidge, the 30th President of the United States.

Coolidge is home to Central Arizona College.

Geography

Coolidge is located at (32.977105, -111.522933).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.0 square miles (13.0 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 7,786 people, 2,585 households, and 1,938 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,549.1 people per square mile (597.7/km²). There were 3,212 housing units at an average density of 639.1/sq mi (246.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 57.85% White, 8.30% Black or African American, 5.63% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 23.58% from other races, and 3.88% from two or more races. 39.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 2,585 households out of which 38.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 19.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.0% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.44.

In the city the population was spread out with 32.9% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, and 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,049, and the median income for a family was $33,536. Males had a median income of $29,159 versus $21,472 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,663. About 20.9% of families and 24.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.9% of those under age 18 and 20.5% of those age 65 or over.

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