Cook

Cook

[kook]
Cook, David J., 1840-1907, American law enforcement officer, b. near La Porte, Ind. He moved (1855) with his family to Kansas, went (1859) to the Colorado gold fields, and returned to enlist (1861) in the Union army in the Civil War. Army service as a sort of military policeman led him to found the volunteer Rocky Mountain Detective Association to suppress outlawry in Colorado, and he had a long career as marshal, sheriff, and police chief, mostly around Denver. He brought many train, bank, and express-company robbers to justice, helped to quell the Ute revolt of 1878, and was arbitrator in the mine strike at Leadville in 1880.

See his reminiscences (new ed. 1958).

Cook, Ebenezer, fl. 1708, American author. Virtually nothing is known about his life. He is the author of The Sot-Weed Factor (1708), a satirical poem concerning an Englishman's visit to Maryland. Sotweed Redivivus (1730), a treatise on tobacco production, is also attributed to him. Cook is the central character in The Sot-Weed Factor (1960), a novel by John Barth.
Cook, Frederick Albert, 1865-1940, American explorer and physician, b. Sullivan co., N.Y. Cook early became interested in the arctic and accompanied the expedition of Robert E. Peary in 1891-92 as surgeon. Later he accompanied the Belgian expedition (1897-99) to Antarctica and made other polar voyages. In 1906, after unsuccessful attempts to reach the summit of Mt. McKinley, Cook remained behind when most of the party returned. He later announced that he and a companion had successfully scaled the peak; this assertion was afterward proved to be fraudulent. In 1907 he set out with an expedition for the arctic, and on Sept. 1, 1909, he emerged into civilization again, claiming that he had reached the North Pole in Apr., 1908. A few days later Peary announced that he had reached the pole in Apr., 1909, and accused Cook of fraud. The argument was sensational. Cook was deprived of some of the honors that had been accorded him and disappeared from the public eye for a time. Later he was involved in an oil-field promotion scheme in Texas and served five years (1925-30) of a 14-year sentence for having used the mails to defraud. To the end of his life, however, and in the face of a generally hostile public, Cook fought for vindication of his polar and Mt. McKinley claims and even filed several libel suits. He was supported by some well-known explorers as well as some ardent admirers. Cook defended his claims in My Attainment of the Pole (1911) and Return from the Pole (ed. by F. J. Pohl, 1951).

See T. Wright, The Big Nail (1970); H. Eames, Winner Lose All (1973); R. M. Bryce Cook and Peary: The Polar Controversy Resolved (1997).

Cook, George Cram: see Glaspell, Susan.
Cook, James, 1728-79, English explorer and navigator. The son of a Yorkshire agricultural laborer, he had little formal education. After an apprenticeship to a firm of shipowners at Whitby, he joined (1755) the royal navy and surveyed the St. Lawrence Channel (1760) and the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador (1763-67). Cook was then given command of the Endeavour and sailed (1768) on an expedition to chart the transit of Venus; he returned to England in 1771, having also circumnavigated the globe and explored the coasts of New Zealand, which he accurately charted for the first time, and E Australia.

Cook next commanded (1772-75) an expedition to the South Pacific of two ships, the Resolution and the Adventure. On this voyage he disproved the rumor of a great southern continent, explored the Antarctic Ocean and the New Hebrides, visited New Caledonia, and by the observance of strict diet and hygiene prevented scurvy, heretofore the scourge of long voyages. Cook sailed again in 1776; in 1778 he visited and named the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) and unsuccessfully searched the coast of NW North America for a Northwest Passage. On the return voyage he was killed by natives on the island of Hawaii. During the course of his journeys Cook visited about ten major Pacific island groups and more than 40 individual islands, also making first European contact with a wide variety of indigenous peoples.

See the definitive edition of his journals, ed. by J. C. Beaglehole (4 vol. and portfolio, repr. 1999); selections from journals, ed. by A. G. Price (1958, repr. 1969); biographies by A. Villiers (1967), J. C. Beaglehole (1974), and R. Hough (1995); A. Moorehead, The Fatal Impact (1966); H. Zimmerman, The Third Voyage of Captain Cook (1988); L. Withey, Voyages of Discovery (1989); G. Obeyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook (1992); N. Thomas, Cook (2003).

Cook, Sir Joseph, 1860-1947, Australian statesman, b. England. A leader of the Free Trade party, he served as prime minister (1913-14) and later as minister of the navy (1917-21) and high commissioner to London (1921-27). He was Australian representative at the Paris Peace Conference and a delegate (1922-26) to the League of Nations.
Cook, Thomas, 1808-92, English travel agent. In Leicester in 1841 he founded the travel agency that bears his name. The idea of the guided tour met with quick success, and by 1852 Cook had moved his office to London. Shortly thereafter he set up (1856) his Circular Tour of Europe, and 10 years later he was arranging tours of the United States. His most spectacular achievement was the transportation of an entire expeditionary force (18,000 men) up the Nile for the attempted relief of Gen. Charles George Gordon in 1884.
Cook, Mount, New Zealand: see Aorangi, Mount.

(born Nov. 22, 1808, Melbourne, Derbyshire, Eng.—died July 18, 1892, Leicester, Leicestershire) British innovator of the conducted tour. A Baptist missionary, in 1841 he arranged for a special train to be run to a temperance meeting; this was probably the first publicly advertised excursion train in England. He began to arrange excursions on a regular basis, and in 1856 he led his first grand tour of Europe. In the early 1860s he became an agent for the sale of travel tickets; with his son, John Mason Cook (1834–99), he founded the Thomas Cook & Son travel agency. In the 1880s the firm also organized military transport and postal services.

Learn more about Cook, Thomas with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 13, 1890, McKeesport, Pa., U.S.—died Dec. 21, 1980, New York, N.Y.) U.S. playwright, screenwriter, and director. He covered theatrical news as a journalist in Pittsburgh and New York City. He collaborated with George S. Kaufman on the play Dulcy (1921), which they followed with the comedies To the Ladies (1922) and Beggar on Horseback (1924) and the librettos for the musicals Helen of Troy, New York (1923) and Be Yourself (1924). Connelly went on to write Green Pastures (1930, Pulitzer Prize; film, 1936), his best-known work, and The Farmer Takes a Wife (1934; film, 1935).

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known as Captain Cook

James Cook, oil painting by John Webber; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born Oct. 27, 1728, Marton-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Feb. 14, 1779, Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii) British sailor and explorer. He joined the Royal Navy (1755) and in 1763–67 surveyed the St. Lawrence River and the coast of Newfoundland. In 1768 he was appointed commander of the first scientific expedition to the Pacific. Sailing on the HMS Endeavour, he found and charted all of New Zealand and explored the eastern coast of Australia. That voyage (1768–71) produced a wealth of scientifically collected material and was also notable for Cook's successful prevention of scurvy among crew members. Promoted to commander, he was sent with two ships to make the first circumnavigation and penetration into the Antarctic. On that expedition (1772–75), which ranks as one of the greatest of all sailing-ship voyages, he successfully completed the first west-east circumnavigation in high latitudes. On a third voyage (1776–79) in search of a Northwest Passage around Canada and Alaska, he was killed by Polynesian natives on Hawaii.

Learn more about Cook, James with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 22, 1808, Melbourne, Derbyshire, Eng.—died July 18, 1892, Leicester, Leicestershire) British innovator of the conducted tour. A Baptist missionary, in 1841 he arranged for a special train to be run to a temperance meeting; this was probably the first publicly advertised excursion train in England. He began to arrange excursions on a regular basis, and in 1856 he led his first grand tour of Europe. In the early 1860s he became an agent for the sale of travel tickets; with his son, John Mason Cook (1834–99), he founded the Thomas Cook & Son travel agency. In the 1880s the firm also organized military transport and postal services.

Learn more about Cook, Thomas with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as Captain Cook

James Cook, oil painting by John Webber; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born Oct. 27, 1728, Marton-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Feb. 14, 1779, Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii) British sailor and explorer. He joined the Royal Navy (1755) and in 1763–67 surveyed the St. Lawrence River and the coast of Newfoundland. In 1768 he was appointed commander of the first scientific expedition to the Pacific. Sailing on the HMS Endeavour, he found and charted all of New Zealand and explored the eastern coast of Australia. That voyage (1768–71) produced a wealth of scientifically collected material and was also notable for Cook's successful prevention of scurvy among crew members. Promoted to commander, he was sent with two ships to make the first circumnavigation and penetration into the Antarctic. On that expedition (1772–75), which ranks as one of the greatest of all sailing-ship voyages, he successfully completed the first west-east circumnavigation in high latitudes. On a third voyage (1776–79) in search of a Northwest Passage around Canada and Alaska, he was killed by Polynesian natives on Hawaii.

Learn more about Cook, James with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Strait, separating North and South islands of New Zealand. Extending from the Tasman Sea to the Pacific Ocean, it is about 14 mi (23 km) wide at its narrowest point and averages 420 ft (128 m) in depth. Both shores are lined with steep cliffs, and that of South Island is deeply embayed. Treacherous currents and fierce storms present serious hazards to navigation. Capt. James Cook explored the strait in 1770.

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Island group (pop., 2005 est.: 13,900), southern Pacific Ocean. Located roughly 2,000 mi (3,000 km) northeast of New Zealand, the 15 islands, scattered from north to south over some 900 mi (1,450 km) of ocean, are divided into a southern group of nine islands, including Raratonga (the seat of government), and a northern group of six. All in the northern group are true atolls; most in the southern group have volcanic interiors. They were probably settled by Polynesians from Tonga and Samoa; there is evidence of a highly organized society circa AD 1100. Capt. James Cook explored many of them during the 1770s. Established as a British protectorate in 1888, they were annexed by New Zealand in 1901. Self-government in free association with New Zealand was achieved in 1965.

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(born Dec. 13, 1890, McKeesport, Pa., U.S.—died Dec. 21, 1980, New York, N.Y.) U.S. playwright, screenwriter, and director. He covered theatrical news as a journalist in Pittsburgh and New York City. He collaborated with George S. Kaufman on the play Dulcy (1921), which they followed with the comedies To the Ladies (1922) and Beggar on Horseback (1924) and the librettos for the musicals Helen of Troy, New York (1923) and Be Yourself (1924). Connelly went on to write Green Pastures (1930, Pulitzer Prize; film, 1936), his best-known work, and The Farmer Takes a Wife (1934; film, 1935).

Learn more about Connelly, Marc(us Cook) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Cook is a city in St. Louis County, Minnesota, USA. The population was 622 at the 2000 census.

U.S. Highway 53 and Minnesota Highway 1 are two of the main arterial routes in the community.

The city was once known as Ashawa, but changed names at the request of the Postal Service, which was having trouble delivering mail to Oshawa, Minn.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.8 square miles (2.0 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 622 people, 275 households, and 158 families residing in the city. The population density was 790.1 people per square mile (304.0/km²). There were 302 housing units at an average density of 383.6/sq mi (147.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.78% White, 0.16% African American, 1.61% Native American, 0.80% from other races, and 0.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.64% of the population. 20.3% were of Norwegian, 16.7% Finnish, 13.9% German, 12.7% Swedish, 6.6% American and 4.9% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 275 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.9% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.5% were non-families. 39.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.82.

In the city the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 26.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 80.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $21,607, and the median income for a family was $34,643. Males had a median income of $30,833 versus $22,232 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,848. About 9.5% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.8% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.

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