Control rods often stand vertically within the core. In pressurised water reactors (PWR), they are inserted from above, the control rod drive mechanisms being mounted on the reactor pressure vessel head. Due to the necessity of a steam dryer above the core of a boiling water reactor (BWR) this design requires insertion of the control rods from underneath the core. The control rods are partially removed from the core to allow a chain reaction to occur. The number of control rods inserted and the distance by which they are inserted can be varied to control the reactivity of the reactor.
Silver-indium-cadmium alloys, generally 80% Ag, 15% In, and 5% Cd, are a common control rod material for pressurized water reactors. The somewhat different energy absorption regions of the materials make the alloy an excellent neutron absorber. It has good mechanical strength and can be easily fabricated. It has to be encased in stainless steel to prevent corrosion in hot water.
Boron is another common neutron absorber. Due to different cross sections of 10B and 11B, boron containing materials enriched in 10B by isotopic separation are frequently used. The wide absorption spectrum of boron makes it suitable also as a neutron shield. Mechanical properties of boron in its elementary form are unfavorable, therefore alloys or compounds have to be used instead. Common choices are high-boron steel and boron carbide. Boron carbide is used as a control rod material in both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors.
Hafnium has excellent properties for reactors using water for both moderation and cooling. It has good mechanical strength, can be easily fabricated, and is resistant to corrosion in hot water. Hafnium can be alloyed with small amounts of other elements; e.g. tin and oxygen to increase tensile and creep strength, iron, chromium and niobium for corrosion resistance, and molybdenum for wear resistance, hardness, and machineability. Some such alloys are designated as Hafaloy, Hafaloy-M, Hafaloy-N, and Hafaloy-NM.  Its high cost and low availability limit its use in civilian reactors, though it is used in some US Navy reactors.
Dysprosium titanate is a new material currently undergoing evaluation for pressurized water control rods. Dysprosium titanate is a promising replacement for Ag-In-Cd alloys due to its much higher melting point, no tendency to react with cladding materials, simple fabrication, non-radioactive waste, no swelling, and no outgassing. It was developed in Russia, and is recommended by some for VVER and RBMK reactors.
Hafnium diboride is another such new material. It can be used standalone or prepared in a sintered mixture of hafnium and boron carbide powders.
Originally the control rods hung above the reactor, suspended by a rope. In an emergency a person assigned to the job would take a fire axe and cut the rope, allowing the rods to fall into the reactor and stop the fission. At some point the title of the person assigned this duty was given as SCRAM, or Safety Control Rod Ax Man (although this may be a backronym). This term continues to be in use today for shutting down a reactor by dropping the control rods.
Homogeneous neutron absorbers have often been used to manage criticality accidents which involve aqueous solutions of fissile metals, in several such accidents either borax (sodium borate) or a cadmium compound has been added to the system. The cadmium can be added as a metal to nitric acid solutions of fissile material, the corrosion of the cadmium in the acid will then generate cadmium nitrate in situ.
In carbon dioxide-cooled reactors such as the AGR, if the solid control rods were to fail to arrest the nuclear reaction nitrogen gas can be injected into the primary coolant cycle. This is because nitrogen has a larger absorption cross-section for neutrons than carbon or oxygen, hence the core would then become less reactive.
As the neutron energy increases the neutron cross section of most isotopes decreases. The boron isotope 10B is responsible for the majority of the neutron absorption. Boron containing materials can be used as neutron shields to reduce the activation of objects close to a reactor core.
Patent Application Titled "Method for Recycling Nuclear Control Rods and Recycled Control Rod Section" Published Online
Oct 03, 2013; By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Politics & Government Week -- According to news reporting originating from Washington,...