The Report on the Affairs of British North America
, commonly known as Lord Durham's Report
, is an important document in the history of Quebec
and the British Empire
The notable British Whig politician John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, was sent to the Canadas in 1838 to investigate and report on the causes of the rebellions of 1837-38. Durham arrived in Quebec City on 27 May. He had just been appointed Governor General and given special powers as high commissioner of British North America.
Durham had spoken to merchants in Britain who wanted greater British control over the Canadas, as they felt the French Canadians' presence in Lower Canada undermined their economic interests.
In Canada, he formed numerous committees consisting of essentially all the opponents of the Patriotes
and made many personal observations of life in the colonies. He also visited the United States
. Durham wrote that he had assumed he would find that the rebellions were based on liberalism
and economics, but he eventually concluded that the real problem was the ethnic
conflict between French and English. According to Durham, the French culture in Canada had changed little in 200 years, and showed no sign of progress
like British culture had. His report contains the famous assessment that Canada consisted of "two nations warring within the bosom of a single state." (1838)
Durham recommended that Upper
and Lower Canada
be united into one province, which would give British Canadians a slight advantage in population. He also encouraged immigration to Canada from Britain, to overwhelm the existing numbers of French Canadians and hopefully assimilate them into British culture. The freedoms granted to the French Canadians under the Royal Proclamation of 1763
and the Quebec Act
of 1774 should also be rescinded; according to Lord Durham this would eliminate the possibility of future rebellions. The French Canadians did not necessarily have to give up their religion and language entirely, but it could not be protected at the expense of what Durham considered a more progressive British culture.
The proposed merger would also benefit Upper Canada as the construction of canals led to a considerable debt load; while access to the former Lower Canada fiscal surplus would allow that debt to be to erased. He also recommended responsible government, in which the governor general would be a figurehead and the legislative assembly would hold a great deal of power. In the responsible government, the legislative assembly would be elected by the people. The party with majority would hold power and as long as they held support, they would keep power. However, this recommendation was not accepted and the Province of Canada would not get responsible government for another decade.
In exile in France, Louis-Joseph Papineau
published the Histoire de la résistance du Canada au gouvernement anglais
(History of the resistance of Canada to the English government) in the French La Revue du Progrès
in May 1839. In June, it appeared in Canada in Ludger Duvernay
's La Revue canadienne
as Histoire de l'insurrection du Canada en réfutation du Rapport de Lord Durham
(History of the insurrection of Canada in refutation of the Report of Lord Durham).
The assertion that the so-called "French" Canadians had no history and no culture and that the conflict was primarily that of two ethnic groups evidently outraged Papineau. It was pointed out that many of the Patriote leaders were of British or British Canadian origin, including among others Wolfred Nelson, hero of the Battle of Saint-Denis; Robert Nelson, author of the Declaration of Independence of Lower Canada, who would have become President of Lower Canada had the second insurrection succeeded; journalist Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan; and Thomas Storrow Brown, general during the Battle of St-Charles. It was also pointed out that an uprising had occurred in Upper Canada where there was only one "race". According to Papineau and other Patriotes, the analysis of the economic situation of French Canadians was biased. Indeed, from 1791 to the rebellions, the elected representatives of Lower Canada had been demanding the control over the budget of the colony.
Durham resigned on 29 September and was soon replaced by Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham
, who was responsible for implementing the Union of the Canadas
. The report of Durham was published in London
in February 1839.
- Mills, David. " Durham Report", in The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historical Foundation, 2008
- Lucas, Charles Prestwood (1912). Lord Durham's report on the affairs of British North America, Oxford: Clarendon Press (Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3)
- Lambton, John George, Charles Buller, Edward Gibbon Wakefield. The Report and Despatches of the Earl of Durham, Her Majesty's High Commissioner and Governor-General of British North America, London: Ridgways, Piccadilly, 1839, 423 p. (online)
- Papineau, Louis-Joseph. "Histoire de la résistance du Canada au gouvernement anglais", in La Revue du Progrès, Paris. May 1839 (online in French, online in English)