In the first year, despite the possibility of imprisonment or worse, 231 draftees refused to serve. Most were members of the Jehovah's Witnesses. The number increased to 287 when the second year's cohort was conscripted.
The GDR's communist government viewed conscientious objectors as enemies of the state, and all 287 were arrested. When the country's influential Protestant Church protested, the government decided to provide a legal means for conscientious objectors to serve as non-combatants in the armed forces. It thus became the only Communist state in history to provide a non-combat alternative for pacifist citizens.
Though outwardly peaceful in appearance, soldiers in Baueinheiten were obliged to make a promise of loyalty in which they stated that they would "fight against all enemies and obey their superiors unconditionally", though this was replaced by an oath to "increase defence readiness" in the 1980s. Some units, however, were used to repair tanks and military equipment.
As of 1983, 0.6 percent of the NVA, about 1,400 people, served in Baueinheiten.
In a way, the NVA had found a way to channel pacifism into the development of the military.
However, once a soldier who had served in a construction unit re-entered civilian life, things were still difficult. Former construction soldiers were not allowed to pursue certain careers and were often turned down for university courses, despite the assurances of Communist leader Erich Honecker and the Minister for National Defence, Colonel General Heinz Hoffman, that these pacifist veterans were not subject to discrimination.
On a practical level, the West German Bundeswehr was nearly three times the size of the NVA. Also, the NVA, as the second largest force in the Warsaw Pact, needed to remain strong as it had come to be viewed as the secondary protector of the Eastern Bloc, after the Soviet Union.
Ideologically, East Germany wished to appear democratic. It knew that most of its citizens yearned for the civil rights that West Germans enjoyed, and so needed to make East Germany look superior to stop this. A large military was one way to show this "superiority".
This invasion appalled people all over the world, but especially East Germans, many of whom felt guilty for letting their government support it. Following the Prague Spring, many young East German men refused to serve even in Baueinheiten, as they felt that something akin to another Prague Spring could be just around the corner, and they wished to play no part in it.
By the late 1980s, the vast majority of conscientious objectors were people who wished to emigrate.
Reclaiming the In-Service Conscientious Objection Program: Proposals for Creating a Meaningful Limitation to the Claim of Conscientious Objection
Aug 01, 2008; Indeed, it seems that just as Voltaire could say that the Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire, it could...