Conscience, Hendrik

Conscience, Hendrik

Conscience, Hendrik, 1812-83, Flemish novelist, a founder of modern Flemish literature. His many historical novels were romantic but powerful, in the tradition of Scott; outstanding is De Leuw van Vlaenderen (1831, tr. The Lion of Flanders, 1885). In later years Conscience devoted his talents to moralistic social novels and idealized stories of Flemish village life. Among these are The Poor Nobleman (1851, tr. 1856) and Ricke ticke tack (1851, tr. 1856). His work enjoyed a great vogue in the United States in the late 1800s.
Hendrik Bulthuis (1865-1945), was a Dutchman, customs official, author, and translator of more than thirty works. One of his novels, Idoj de Orfejo (Children of Orpheus) is listed in William Auld's Baza legolisto#Proza fikcio.


Hindrik Jan Bulthuis (bulthoys), Dutchman, customs officer from 1889 until 1924, now in a pens. (retired??) Born 15 September 1865 in Warfum, Groningen (northeast Netherlands). In his youth he was a Volapükist, in 1899 he received a diploma in V. as a master teacher (eo:ĉefinstruisto).

Esperanto activity

In 1901 D. Uitterdijk sent him a textbook of Esperanto, after which he became an Esperantist. He engaged in much correspondence with Esperantists of other countries, did much Esperanto publicity, especially in The Hague, taught courses, and served as the secretary of the examinations committee from its establishment until the present. From 1910 on L. K. In latter years he worked only for Esperanto; as a novelist (of works originally in Esperanto), a translator and author of small booklets, B. has been one of the most enduring workers in Esperanto.

Literary activity

Starting in 1907, when his translation from French of Two Tickets (Du Biletoj) by Florian appeared, he published 35 books and brochures. Never is Better than Late, a comedy translated from English, seemingly his first printed work, appeared in the lit. appendix of L. I. (International Language) in 1905. He became known mainly for a trio of original works. The Offspring of Orpheus, 1923, despite some implausibilities, marked its author as a clear stylist and a person of outstanding storytelling talent. It still remains perhaps the most popular of his magnum opi. That was followed by the naively simple Joseph and Potifer's Wife, 1926, and The Fuzzy Hand, 1928, an intimately aware picture of Dutch peasant life, in which B's inclination for non-veresimilitude is still evident.

Next in importance are his grandiose translations: the strangely chosen The Lion of Flanders, 1929, out of the Flemish of Conscience; the thematically heavy but well translated Emperor and Galilean, 1930, from the Norwegen of Ibsen. Both of thes works were crowned by the Academy. Jane Eyre, 1930, from the English of Ch. Bronte survived a careless translation well enough to remain an interesting story, thanks to its essential value. There also appeared in 1926 The Little John (La Malgranda Johano) from the Dutch of van Eeden. As a poet B. published only The Two Ships (La Du Sxipoj), 1909, for which he received a prize from Barcelona. For the Theatre in 1908 he wrote the praised (?) Uncle from America (Onklo el Ameriko), 1922; a drama Poor in Spirit (Malricxa en Spirito) and, from the German, translated Salome, 1910, a drama by the Englishman, Wilde.

Worth mentioning from his other works are: the translations Diary of a Village Clerk, 1921, and Josepha, 1922, both from the Danish by Blicher; and in 1921 Character, from the Dutch by Luiscius (that work has also appeared in Finnish, Czech, Italian, Catalan, all translated from the Esperanto text.) His nine school readers, mostly for little Dutch children, and his retelling for youth of Robinson Crusoe, were conscientiously done.

Presently, B. is translating: Don Quixote from Spanish and is writing another novel for youth. The most extensive commentary on B's works is by Nekrasov, who wrote extensive critiques of both his original novels from a Marxist viewpoint for the ante-schism "La Nova epoko" (The New Epoch) (Oct. 1929-Feb. 1930) and for the post-schism "La Nova Etapo" (The New Stage) (1932). That was too tendentiously Marxist to encounter general agreement. B.'s language style is simple, classical, without ornamentation. One can hardly find in it attempts at "impressionistic" experiment. He is more correctly called a weaver of stories, than a conscious "evolver" of our language. R. Banham.



His original novels (in Esperanto) were:

His original plays (in Esperanto):

A collection of poems:

Translated into Esperanto from various languages

Of his many translations (into Esperanto) worth citing are:


First version of this article was translated from the Hendrik Bulthuis. That article quotes extensively from the Enciklopedio de Esperanto.

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