A large group of disorders arising during development that cause abnormality of the human body. Most are due to genetic factors such as inherited or spontaneous mutations, whereas others are caused by environmental influences during pregnancy such as exposure to harmful chemicals. The most severe and lethal disorders arise during the first 28 days of development and include gross brain anomalies and heart defects. The mildest malformations occur in the late stages of development and are often the result of dominant inheritance, whereas complex congenital syndromes are often the result of recessive inheritance. Seealso birth defect; Down syndrome.
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A congenital disorder is a disease or disorder that is present at birth. It may be the result of genetic abnormalities, the intrauterine (uterus) environment, errors of morphogenesis, or a chromosomal abnormality. The outcome of the disorder will further depend on complex interactions between the pre-natal deficit and the post-natal environment. Congenital disorders vary widely in causation and abnormalities. Any substance that causes birth defects is known as a teratogen.