roots meaning "born together" or "within the same race or kind") has several different meanings depending on the field in which it is used. Colloquially, it is used to mean a person or thing like another in character or action.
, congeners are organisms within the same genus or species. Congeners within the same geographical region can compete, through exploitative, preemptive,interference, and intra and inter competition with one another so many adaptations can be observed that mitigate this pressure on populations. These adaptations may include changes in habitat niche and resource allocations. Predator-prey relationships may also be affected.
In chemistry, congeners are related chemicals, e.g., a derivative or an element in the same group of the periodic table
In the alcoholic beverage
industry, congener refers to impurities produced during fermentation
or to metals such as zinc, added to certain sweet liqueurs in order to enhance flavor. Congeners are responsible for most of the taste, aroma, and color of alcoholic beverages. It has been suggested that these substances also contribute to the symptoms of a hangover
, although the more likely cause is a more complicated mix of ethanol
, and various other factors (see hangover
for a more complete list).
organisms are organisms with very similar genomes, except for a small fraction. For example, recombinant congenic mice strains are produced in laboratories as a tool to study genetic disease