To aid in this, many test procedures and test setups have been developed, either by the standard's maintainers or external organizations, specifically for testing conformance to standards.
Conformance testing is often performed by external organizations, sometimes the standards body itself, to give greater guarantees of compliance. Products tested in such a manner are then advertised as being certified by that external organization as complying with the standard.
There are three main types of compliance test for electronic devices, emissions tests, immunity tests, and safety tests. Emissions tests ensure that a product will not emit harmful interference by electromagnetic radiation and/or electrical signals in communication and power lines. Immunity tests ensure that a product is immune to common electrical signals and Electromagnetic interference (EMI) that will be found in its operating environment, such as electromagnetic radiation from a local radio station or interference from nearby products. Safety tests ensure that a product will not create a safety risk from situations such as a failed or shorted power supply, blocked cooling vent, and powerline voltage spikes and dips. Common Tests : Radiated Immunity : An antenna is used to subject the device to electromagnetic waves, covering a large frequency range (usually from 30 MHz to 2.9 GHz). Radiated Emissions : One or more antennas are used to measure the amplitude of the electromagnetic waves that a device emits. The amplitude must be under a set limit, with the limit depending on the devices classification. Conducted Immunity : Low frequency signals (usually 10 kHz to 80 MHz) are injected onto the data and power lines of a device. This test is used to simulate the coupling of low frequency signals onto the power and data lines, such as from a local AM radio station. Conducted Emissions : Similar to radiated emissions, except the signals are measured at the power lines with a filter device. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) Immunity : Electrostatic discharges with various properties (rise time, peak voltage, fall time, and half time) are applied to the areas on the device that are likely to be discharged too, such as the faces, near user accessible buttons, etc. Discharges are also applied to a vertical and horizontal ground plane to simulate an ESD event on a nearby surface. Voltages are usually from 2kV to 15kV, but commonly go as high as 25kV or more. Burst Immunity : Bursts of high voltage pulses are applied to the powerlines to simulate events such as repeating voltage spikes from a motor. Powerline Dip Immunity : The line voltage is slowly dropped down then brought back up. Powerline Surge Immunity : A surge is applied to the line voltage.
Conformance testing helped by standards: before buying, more customers seek proof products will work in open architecture. (includes related article on GTE Corp.'s use of X/ Open conformance testing) (Open Systems)
Oct 01, 1992; Before buying, more customers seek proof products will work in open architecture Truth in advertising is a must for technology...
Signaling Conformance Test Set helps verify LTE user equipment.(Agilent Technologies Announces Signaling Conformance Test Solution for LTE User Equipment)
Oct 01, 2010; Operating with and extending capabilities of PXT Mobile Communications Test Set by providing signaling conformance test...