CRYPTO is the commonly used short name for the Annual International Cryptology Conference, one of the largest in cryptography and cryptanalysis, organized by the International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR). It is held yearly in August in Santa Barbara, California at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
The first CRYPTO was held in 1981. It was the first major conference on cryptology, and was all the more important because relations between government, industry and academia were rather tense. Encryption was considered a very sensitive subject and the coming together of delegates from different countries was unheard-of at the time. The initiative for the formation of the IACR came during CRYPTO '82, and CRYPTO '83 was the first IACR sponsored conference.
CRYPTO 2005 included progress in cryptanalysis of SHA1. The first break of that algorithm, announced that February, was published here, and a faster attack was announced at the informal "rump session", putting practical collision searches of SHA1 barely within the horizon of what is currently feasible. In the following year's rump session, further developments the differential cryptanalysis of SHA1 were announced, suggesting that an example collision may be exhibited in the relatively near future.