Definitions

conference

Yalta Conference

(Feb. 4–11, 1945) Conference of Allied leaders at Yalta to plan Germany's defeat in World War II. Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin discussed the postwar occupation of Germany, postwar assistance to the German people, German disarmament, war-crimes trials, the fate of the defeated or liberated states of eastern Europe, voting in the future United Nations Security Council, and German reparations. Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan after the German surrender. Roosevelt died two months later, and Stalin broke his promise to allow democratic elections in eastern Europe. Seealso Potsdam Conference; Tehrān Conference.

Learn more about Yalta Conference with a free trial on Britannica.com.

officially International Conference on Naval Limitation

Conference held in Washington, D.C. (1921–22), to limit the naval arms race and negotiate Pacific security agreements. Several major and minor treaty agreements were drafted and signed: the Four-Power Pact (signed by Britain, Japan, France, and the U.S.) stipulated mutual consultation regarding any issue in the Pacific and affirmed respect for the Pacific territories of signatory nations. The Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty (which Italy also signed) imposed proportional limits on the number of warships each signatory nation could maintain and mandated some actual disarmament; it lapsed in 1936 when Japan was refused equality with the U.S. and Britain. Another agreement regulated the use of submarines and outlawed poison gas in warfare. A Nine-Power Pact (with The Netherlands, Portugal, Belgium, and China) affirmed China's sovereignty.

Learn more about Washington Conference with a free trial on Britannica.com.

officially United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

Conference held in Rio de Janeiro (June 3–14, 1992) to reconcile worldwide economic development with environmental protection. It was the largest gathering of world leaders in history, with 117 heads of state and representatives of 178 countries. Biodiversity, global warming, sustainable development, and preservation of tropical rain forests were among the topics discussed. Five international agreements were signed amid tensions between the industrialized countries of the North and the poorer developing states of the South, who were reluctant to accept environmental restrictions without increased Northern economic aid. Follow-up meetings were held in 1997 at the UN General Assembly in New York and in 2002 in Johannesburg, S.Af. Seealso Rio Treaty.

Learn more about Earth Summit with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(Nov. 28–Dec. 1, 1943) Meeting of Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin in Tehrān during World War II to discuss military strategy and political issues. Stalin agreed to launch a military offensive from the east to coincide with a planned invasion of German-occupied France from the west. Also discussed but not settled were eastern Europe's postwar borders, including Poland's postwar status, and a postwar international organization.

Learn more about Tehrān Conference with a free trial on Britannica.com.

U.S. nonsectarian agency founded by Martin Luther King, Jr., and others in 1957 to assist local organizations working for equal rights for African Americans. Operating primarily in the South, it conducted leadership-training programs, citizen-education projects, and voter-registration drives. It played a major role in the historic March on Washington in 1963 and in the campaigns to urge passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. After King's assassination in 1968, Ralph Abernathy became president. In the early 1970s the SCLC was weakened by several schisms, including the departure of Jesse Jackson, who founded Operation PUSH in Chicago.

Learn more about Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(July 17–Aug. 2, 1945) Allied conference held in the Berlin suburb of Potsdam after Germany's surrender in World War II. Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin, and Winston Churchill (later replaced by Clement R. Attlee) met to discuss European peace settlements, the administration of defeated Germany, the demarcation of the boundaries of Poland, the occupation of Austria, the definition of the Soviet Union's role in eastern Europe, the determination of reparations, and the further prosecution of the war against Japan. The four occupation zones of Germany conceived at the Yalta Conference were set up, each to be administered by the commander-in-chief of the Soviet, British, U.S., or French army of occupation. Poland's boundary became the Oder and Neisse rivers in the west, and the country received part of former East Prussia. Stalin refused to let the Western powers interfere with his control of eastern Europe.

Learn more about Potsdam Conference with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(1919–20) Meeting that inaugurated the international settlement after World War I. It opened on Jan. 12, 1919, with representatives from more than 30 countries. The principal delegates were France's Georges Clemenceau, Britain's David Lloyd George, the U.S.'s Woodrow Wilson, and Italy's Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, who with their foreign ministers formed a Supreme Council. Commissions were appointed to study specific financial and territorial questions, including reparations. The major products of the conference were the League of Nations; the Treaty of Versailles, presented to Germany; the Treaty of Saint-Germain, presented to Austria; and the Treaty of Neuilly, presented to Bulgaria. The inauguration of the League of Nations on Jan. 16, 1920, brought the conference to a close. Treaties were subsequently concluded with Hungary (Treaty of Trianon, 1920) and Turkey (Treaties of Sèvres, 1920, and Lausanne, 1923).

Learn more about Paris Peace Conference with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(1922) Post–World War I meeting at Genoa, Italy, to discuss the economic reconstruction of Central and Eastern Europe and to improve relations between Soviet Russia and Western Europe. Representatives of 30 European countries sought ways to enlist foreign capital for the “restoration of Russia.” Negotiations broke down when France and Belgium, Russia's main creditors, insisted on repayment of prewar loans and restitution of confiscated foreign-owned property in Russia. Announcement of the German-Soviet Treaty of Rapallo further strained relations.

Learn more about Genoa, Conference of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(1922) Post–World War I meeting at Genoa, Italy, to discuss the economic reconstruction of Central and Eastern Europe and to improve relations between Soviet Russia and Western Europe. Representatives of 30 European countries sought ways to enlist foreign capital for the “restoration of Russia.” Negotiations broke down when France and Belgium, Russia's main creditors, insisted on repayment of prewar loans and restitution of confiscated foreign-owned property in Russia. Announcement of the German-Soviet Treaty of Rapallo further strained relations.

Learn more about Genoa, Conference of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(Jan. 12–23, 1943) Meeting during World War II at Casablanca, Morocco, between Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. They planned future global military strategy for the Western allies, reaching agreement on such issues as the invasion of Sicily, operations in the Pacific theatre, and the concentrated bombing of Germany. Most importantly, they issued a demand for an “unconditional surrender” from Germany, Italy, and Japan.

Learn more about Casablanca Conference with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(November–December 1943) Two meetings held in Cairo during World War II. At the first, Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt discussed plans for the Normandy Invasion (see Normandy Campaign). With Chiang Kai-shek, they announced their goal of stripping Japan of all the territories it had seized since 1914 and of restoring Korea to independence. At the second conference, Churchill and Roosevelt tried unsuccessfully to persuade Turkey's Pres. Ismet Inönü to bring his country into the war on the side of the Allies.

Learn more about Cairo conferences with a free trial on Britannica.com.

officially United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference

(July 1–22, 1944) Meeting held at Bretton Woods, N.H., to make financial arrangements for the postwar era after the expected defeat of Germany and Japan. Representatives of 44 countries, including the Soviet Union, agreed to create the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) and the International Monetary Fund. Seealso John Maynard Keynes.

Learn more about Bretton Woods Conference with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(Jan. 16–April 7, 1906) Conference held at Algeciras, Spain, that resolved the first of the Moroccan crises. In 1905 William II objected to France's efforts to exert influence in Morocco, prompting a conference of the European powers and the U.S. Superficially, the Act of Algeciras (1906) seemed to limit French penetration, but the conference's real significance was the diplomatic support that Britain and the U.S. gave France, foreshadowing their roles in World War I.

Learn more about Algeciras Conference with a free trial on Britannica.com.

"Crypto" is also an abbreviation for cryptology, the subject of this conference. For other uses, see crypto

CRYPTO is the commonly used short name for the Annual International Cryptology Conference, one of the largest in cryptography and cryptanalysis, organized by the International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR). It is held yearly in August in Santa Barbara, California at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

The first CRYPTO was held in 1981. It was the first major conference on cryptology, and was all the more important because relations between government, industry and academia were rather tense. Encryption was considered a very sensitive subject and the coming together of delegates from different countries was unheard-of at the time. The initiative for the formation of the IACR came during CRYPTO '82, and CRYPTO '83 was the first IACR sponsored conference.

CRYPTO 2005 included progress in cryptanalysis of SHA1. The first break of that algorithm, announced that February, was published here, and a faster attack was announced at the informal "rump session", putting practical collision searches of SHA1 barely within the horizon of what is currently feasible. In the following year's rump session, further developments the differential cryptanalysis of SHA1 were announced, suggesting that an example collision may be exhibited in the relatively near future.

See also

External links

Search another word or see conferenceon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature