Woodwind instrument in which the sound is produced by blowing against a sharp edge. In its broad sense, a flute may be end-blown, like the recorder, or may have a globular shape, like the ocarina. In its narrow sense, discussed below, flute refers to the transverse flute of Western music. The transverse flute, a tubular instrument held sideways to the right, appeared in Greece and Etruria by the 2nd century BC. By the 16th century a family of boxwood flutes, with fingerholes but no keys, was in use in Europe. Keys began to be added in the late 17th century. Theobald Boehm's 19th-century innovations resulted in the modern flute, which permits thorough expressive control and great agility. The cylindrical tube may be made of wood or, more often, a precious metal or alloy. Its range is from about middle C to the C three octaves higher. The flute family includes the piccolo (pitched an octave higher), the alto flute, and the rare bass flute. Seealso shakuhachi.
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In the post-Napoleonic era, the consensus among the European monarchies favoring preservation of the territorial and political status quo. The term assumed the responsibility and the right of the great powers to intervene in states threatened by internal rebellion. The powers discussed such intervention at several congresses, including those of Aix-la-Chapelle, Troppau, Laibach, and Verona.
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A concert is a live performance, usually of music, before an audience. The music may be performed by a single musician, sometimes then called a recital, or by a musical ensemble, such as an orchestra, a choir, or a musical band. Informal names for a concert include "show" and "gig". Concerts are held in a wide variety of settings or venues, including pubs, nightclubs, houses, barns, dedicated concert halls, entertainment centres, large multipurpose buildings, and even sports stadiums. A concert held in a very large venue is sometimes called an arena concert. Regardless of the venue, musicians usually perform on a stage. Before the dominance of recorded music, concerts would be the only opportunity one would generally have to hear musicians play.
While the principal reason for a concert is the opportunity for the musicians to perform in front of an audience, even the most purely artistic of endeavors will see gains. Concerts provide the musicians exposure to the public. An attendee will probably see the musicians perform again if the concert was worthwhile. Recording artists usually go on tours to promote record sales and introduce their fans to new musical compositions. Some musicians and musical groups are known for consistently touring and holding concerts, others rarely so.
It is common practice to implement some form of admission charge for a concert, although there are also free concerts. The proceeds from the ticket sales traditionally go to the performing artistes, producers, and organisers. However, there are also benefit concerts where either the proceeds or profits will go to charity.
A concert tour is a series of concerts by a musician, musical group, or some number of either in different cities or locations. Especially in the popular music world, such tours can become large-scale enterprises that last for several months or even years, are seen by hundreds of thousands or millions of people, and bring in millions of dollars (or the equivalent) in ticket revenues. Different segments of long-lived concert tours are known as "legs". Concert tours are often administered on the local level by concert promoters or by performing arts presenters.
The nature of a concert will vary by musical genre and individual groups in those genres. Concerts by a small jazz combo and a small bluegrass band may have the same order of program, mood, and volume, but vary in music and dress. In a similar way, a particular musician, band, or genre of music might attract concert attendees with similar dress, hairstyle, and behavior. For example, the hippies of the 70s often toted long hair (sometimes in dread lock form), sandals and inexpensive clothing made of natural fibers. The regular attendees to a concert venue might also have a recognizable style, comprising that venue's "scene".
Musical groups with large expected audiences can put on very elaborate and expensive affairs. In order to create a memorable and exciting atmosphere and increase the spectacle, the musicians will frequently include additional entertainment devices within their concerts. These tend to include changeable stage lighting effects and various special effect visuals, which include anything from large video screens, inflatables, smoke or dry ice, pyrotechnics, artwork, pre-recorded video, and unusual attire, such as KISS. Some singers, especially in genres of popular music, augment the sound of their concerts with pre-recorded accompaniment and even broadcast vocal tracks of the singer's own voice. Activities which may take place during large-scale concerts include dancing, sing-alongs, moshing, headbanging, and crowd-surfing.
Larger concerts involving a greater number of musical groups, especially those that last for multiple days, are known as festivals. Examples include the Bloodstock Open Air, Woodstock Music and Art Festival, Oxegen, Bath Festival, Salzburg Festival, the Newport Jazz Festival, Leeds & Reading Festival, Cambridge Folk Festival, Glastonbury Festival, Chucks house, Roskilde Festival, Isle of Wight Festival and Summer Sonic.