Concentration may be expressed in a number of ways. The simplest statement of the concentrations of the components of a mixture is in terms of their percentages by weight or volume. Mixtures of solids or liquids are frequently specified by weight percentage concentrations, such as alloys of metals or mixtures used in cooking, whereas mixtures of gases are usually specified by volume percentages. Very low concentrations may be expressed in parts per million (ppm), as in specifying the relative presence of various substances in the atmosphere.
In addition to these means of expressing concentration, several others are defined especially for describing solutions: molarity, molality, mole fraction, formality, and normality. Some of these define the concentration of the solute in reference to the amount of solvent, others in reference to the total amount of solution. The molarity of a solution is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution; e.g., a solution of glucose in water containing 180.16 grams (1 gram-molecular weight, or mole) of glucose per liter of solution is referred to as one molar (1 M). The molality of a solution is the number of moles of solute per 1,000 grams of solvent; a solution prepared by dissolving 180.16 grams of glucose in 1,000 grams of water is one molal (1 m). The mole fraction of a solution is the ratio of moles of solute to the total number of moles in the solution. Since ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride, NaCl, do not occur as molecules, their concentrations cannot be expressed in terms of molarity, molality, or mole fraction. Instead, the concentration of an ionic compound in solution may be given by its formality, the number of gram-formula weights of the compound per liter of solution; e.g., a solution containing 58.44 grams (one gram-formula weight) of NaCl per liter of solution is one formal (1 F). In considering the reactions of certain solutions in combination, for example the neutralization of acids and bases, a useful expression of the concentration is the normality of each solution, the number of gram-equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution (see equivalent weight); e.g., a solution containing 49.04 grams (one gram-equivalent weight) of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, per liter of solution is one normal (1 N). Concentrations of solutions may also frequently be given in terms of the weight of solute in a given volume of solvent or solution.
Internment centre established by a government to confine political prisoners or members of national or minority groups for reasons of state security, exploitation, or punishment. The prisoners are usually selected by executive decree or military order. Camps are usually built to house many people, typically in highly crowded conditions. Countries that have used such camps include Britain during the South African War, the Soviet Union (see Gulag), the U.S. (see Manzanar Relocation Center), and Japan, which interned Dutch civilians in the Dutch East Indies during World War II. A variation, called a “reeducation camp,” was used in Vietnam after 1975 and in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge. Most notorious were the death camps of Nazi Germany, including Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen, Buchenwald, Dachau, and Treblinka.
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Behavioral syndrome in children, whose major symptoms are inattention and distractibility, restlessness, inability to sit still, and difficulty concentrating on one thing for any period of time. It occurs in about 5percnt of all schoolchildren, and it is three times more common in boys than in girls. It can adversely affect learning, though many children with ADD can learn to control their behaviour sufficiently to perform satisfactorily in school. It appears to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Certain aspects of the syndrome may persist into adulthood. Treatment usually entails counseling and close parental supervision, and it may also include prescription medication.
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In psychology, the act or state of applying the mind to an object of sense or thought. Wilhelm Wundt was perhaps the first psychologist to study attention, distinguishing between broad and restricted fields of awareness. He was followed by William James, who emphasized active selection of stimuli, and Ivan Pavlov, who noted the role attention plays in activating conditioned reflexes. John B. Watson sought to define attention not as an “inner” process but rather as a behavioral response to specific stimuli. Psychologists today consider attention against a background of “orienting reflexes” or “preattentive processes,” whose physical correlates include changes in the voltage potential of the cerebral cortex and in the electrical activity of the skin, increased cerebral blood flow, pupil dilation, and muscular tightening. Seealso attention deficit disorder.
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In chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. This can apply to any sort of chemical mixture, but most frequently the concept is limited to homogeneous solutions, where it refers to the amount of solute in a substance.
To concentrate a solution, one must add more solute, or reduce the amount of solvent (for instance, by selective evaporation). By contrast, to dilute a solution, one must add more solvent, or reduce the amount of solute.
Unless two substances are fully miscible there exists a concentration at which no further solute will dissolve in a solution. At this point, the solution is said to be saturated. If additional solute is added to a saturated solution, it will not dissolve (except in certain circumstances, when supersaturation may occur). Instead, phase separation will occur, leading to either coexisting phases or a suspension. The point of saturation depends on many variables such as ambient temperature and the precise chemical nature of the solvent and solute.
Analytical concentration includes all the forms of that substance in the solution.
Often in informal, non-technical language, concentration is described in a qualitative way, through the use of adjectives such as "dilute" or "weak" for solutions of relatively low concentration and of others like "concentrated" or "strong" for solutions of relatively high concentration. Those terms relate the amount of a substance in a mixture to the observable intensity of effects or properties caused by that substance. For example, a practical rule is that the more concentrated a chromatic solution is, the more intensely colored it is.
Unless otherwise stated, all the following measurements of volume are assumed to be at a standard state temperature and pressure (for example 25 degrees Celsius at 1 atmosphere or 101.325 kPa). The measurement of mass does not require such restrictions.
Mass can be determined at a precision of < 0.2 mg on a routine basis with an analytical balance and more precise instruments exist. Both solids and liquids are easily quantified by weighing.
The volume of a liquid is usually determined by calibrated glassware such as burettes and volumetric flasks. For very small volumes precision syringes are available. The use of graduated beakers and cylinders is not recommended as their indication of volume is mostly for decorative rather than quantitative purposes. The volume of solids, particularly of powders, is often difficult to measure, which is why mass is the more usual measure. For gases the opposite is true: the volume of a gas can be measured in a gas burette, if care is taken to control the pressure, but the mass is not easy to measure due to buoyancy effects.
Molarity (in units of mol/L, molar, or M) or molar concentration denotes the number of moles of a given substance per liter of solution. A capital letter M is used to abbreviate the units of mol/L. For instance:
Such a solution may be described as "0.50 molar." It must be emphasized that a 0.5 molar solution contains 0.5 moles of solute in 1.0 liter of solution. This is not equivalent to 1.0 liter of solvent. A 0.5 mol/L solution will contain either slightly more or slightly less than 1 liter of solvent because the process of dissolution causes the volume of the liquid to increase or decrease.
Following the SI system of units, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the United States authority on measurement, considers the term molarity and the unit symbol M to be obsolete, and suggests instead the amount-of-substance concentration (c) with units mol/m3 or other units used alongside the SI such as mol/L. This recommendation has not been universally implemented in academia or chemistry research yet.
Preparation of a solution of known molarity involves adding an accurately weighed amount of solute to a volumetric flask, adding some solvent to dissolve it, then adding more solvent to fill to the volume mark.
When discussing the molarity of minute concentrations, such as in pharmacological research, molarity is expressed in units of millimolar (mmol/L, mM, 1 thousandth of a molar), micromolar (μmol/L, μM, 1 millionth of a molar) or nanomolar (nmol/L, nM, 1 billionth of a molar).
Although molarity is by far the most commonly used measure of concentration, particularly for dilute aqueous solutions, it does suffer from a number of disadvantages. Masses can be determined with great precision as balances are often very precise. Determining volume is often not as precise. In addition, due to a thermal expansion, the molarity of a solution changes with temperature without adding or removing any mass. For non-dilute solutions another problem is that the molar volume of a substance is itself a function of concentration so that volume is not strictly additive.
Following the SI system of units, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the United States authority on measurement, considers the unit symbol m to be obsolete, and suggests instead the term 'molality of substance B' (mB) with units mol/kg or a related unit of the SI. This recommendation has not been universally implemented in academia yet.
Note that molality is sometimes represented by the symbol (m), while molarity by the symbol (M). The two symbols are not meant to be confused, and should not be used as symbols for units. The SI unit for molality is mol/kg. (The unit m means meter.)
Like other mass-based measures, the determination of molality only requires a good scale, because the masses of both solvent and solute can be obtained by weighing, and molality is independent of the physical conditions like temperature and pressure, providing advantages over molarity.
In a dilute aqueous solution near room temperature and standard atmospheric pressure, the molarity and molality will be very similar in value. This is because 1 kg of water roughly corresponds to a volume of 1 L at these conditions, and because the solution is dilute, the addition of the solute makes a negligible impact on the volume of the solution.
However, in all other conditions, this is usually not the case.
This measure is used very frequently in the construction of phase diagrams. It has a number of advantages:
As both mole fractions and molality are only based on the masses of the components it is easy to convert between these measures. This is not true for molarity, which requires knowledge of the density.
When the volume considered is a gas, a specific approach is needed: the gas' pressure and temperature conditions must be considered. A typical use is in air pollution emission quantification. It is very common to find values such as 50 g/Nm3 or 50 g/m3N. The "N" before or after the cubic meter indicates that the gas is under the Standard conditions for temperature and pressure.
Volume-volume percentage (sometimes referred to as percent volume per volume and abbreviated as % v/v) describes the volume of the solute in mL per 100 mL of the resulting solution. This is most useful when a liquid - liquid solution is being prepared, although it is used for mixtures of gases as well. For example, a 40% v/v ethanol solution contains 40 mL ethanol per 100 mL total volume. The percentages are only additive in the case of mixtures of ideal gases.
A normal is one gram equivalent of a solute per liter of solution. The definition of a gram equivalent varies depending on the type of chemical reaction that is discussed - it can refer to acids, bases, redox species, and ions that will precipitate.
It is critical to note that normality measures a single ion which takes part in an overall solute. For example, one could determine the normality of hydroxide or sodium in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, but the normality of sodium hydroxide itself has no meaning. Nevertheless it is often used to describe solutions of acids or bases, in those cases it is implied that the normality refers to the H+ or OH− ion. For example, 2 Normal sulfuric acid (H2SO4), means that the normality of H+ ions is 2, or that the molarity of the sulfuric acid is 1. Similarly for 1 Molar H3PO4 the normality is 3 as it contains three H+ ions.
As ions in solution can react through different pathways, there are three common definitions for normality as a measure of reactive species in solution:
The measure of normality is extremely useful for titrations - given two species that are known to react with a known ratio, one simply needs to scale the volumes of solutions with known normalities to get a complete reaction with the following equation:
However, normality cannot reliably represent an unambiguous measure of the concentration of a solution. Since the measure of normality depends on the reaction that the solute participates in, the same concentration of solute can possess two different normalities for two different reactions. For example, Mg2+ is 2 N with respect to a Cl- ion, but it is only 1 N with respect to an O2- ion.
Accordingly, normality is no longer used to represent the concentration of a solution as such. Instead, a solution should be labeled according to its molarity, and it is then possible to calculate the normality for a particular titration using the equation above. NIST has also stipulated that this unit is obsolete and recommends discontinuing its use.
For example: if one dissolves sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in a litre of water, the compound dissociates into the Na+ and CO32- ions. Some of the CO32- reacts with the water to form HCO3- and H2CO3. If the pH of the solution is low, there is practically no Na2CO3 left in the solution. So, although we have added 1 mol of Na2CO3 to the solution, it does not contain 1 M of that substance. (Rather, it contains a molarity based on the other constituents of the solution.) However, it was once said that such solutions contain 1 F of Na2CO3.
In atmospheric chemistry and in air pollution regulations, the parts per notation is commonly expressed with a v following, such as ppmv, to indicate parts per million by volume. This works fine for gas concentrations (e.g., ppmv of carbon dioxide in the ambient air) but, for concentrations of non-gaseous substances such as aerosols, cloud droplets, and particulate matter in the ambient air, the concentrations are commonly expressed as μg/m³ or mg/m³ (e.g., μg or mg of particulates per cubic metre of ambient air). This expression eliminates the need to take into account the impact of temperature and pressure on the density and hence weight of the gas.
The usage is generally quite fixed inside most specific branches of science, leading some researchers to believe that their own usage (mass/mass, volume/volume or others) is the only correct one. This, in turn, leads them not to specify their usage in their research, and others may therefore misinterpret their results. For example, electrochemists often use volume/volume, while chemical engineers may use mass/mass as well as volume/volume. Many academic papers of otherwise excellent level fail to specify their usage of the part-per notation. The difference between expressing concentrations as mass/mass or volume/volume is quite significant when dealing with gases and it is very important to specify which is being used. It is quite simple, for example, to distinguish ppm by volume from ppm by mass or weight by using ppmv or ppmw.
** Obsolete unit symbols.