For concatenation of general lists, see append.
In computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining two character strings end to end. For example, the strings "foo" and "bar" may be concatenated to give "foobar". In many programming languages, string concatenation is a binary infix operator.

For example, the following expression uses the "+" symbol as the concatenation operator:

print "Hello " + "World";

Different languages

Different languages use different operators. Most languages use the plus sign ("+") though several deviate from this norm.


Operator Symbol name Language
+ plus sign ActionScript, BASIC, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Pascal, Python, Ruby, Windows PowerShell, SQL, GML
& ampersand Ada, AppleScript, VHDL, Visual Basic
. dot Perl (before version 6), PHP
~ tilde Perl 6
// double slash

|| double vertical bar REXX, SQL, Icon
$+ dollar plus mIRC Scripting Language

For a more detailed comparison, please see the concatenation comparison article.

Programming conventions


Many languages, such as PHP and JavaScript have a variant of the assignment operator that allows concatenation and assignment to a variable in one statement.

For example, in PHP and Perl: //Example 1 (concatenation operator ".") $var = "Hello "; $var = $var . "World";

//Example 2 (combined assignment and concatenation ".=") $var = "Hello "; $var .= "World";

Both examples produce the same result.


Some languages, (such as Perl, PHP, and most Unix shells), support variable interpolation as an alternative form of string concatenation.

For example, in Perl, the concatenation syntax:

my $stringVar; $stringVar = "World"; print "Hello " . $stringVar;

can be substituted with the string literal syntax:

my $stringVar; $stringVar = "World"; print "Hello $stringVar";

since double quoted string literals in Perl indicate scalar variables with the dollar sign ($) scalar sigil.

See also

External links

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