computer program

computer program

computer program, a series of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute; programs are also called software to distinguish them from hardware, the physical equipment used in data processing. These programming instructions cause the computer to perform arithmetic and logical operations or comparisons (and then take some additional action based on the comparison) or to input or output data in a desired sequence. In conventional computing the operations are executed sequentially; in parallel processing the operations are allocated among multiple processors, which execute them concurrently and share the results. Programs are often written as a series of subroutines, which can be used in more than one program or at more than one point in the same program.

Systems programs are those that control the operation of the computer. Chief among these is the operating system—also called the control program, executive, or supervisor—which schedules the execution of other programs, allocates system resources, and controls input and output operations. Processing programs are those whose execution is controlled by the operating system. Language translators decode source programs, written in a programming language, and produce object programs, which are in machine language and can be understood by the computer. These include assemblers, which translate symbolic languages that have a one-to-one relationship with machine language; compilers, which translate an algorithmic- or procedural-language program into a machine-language program to be executed at a later time; and interpreters, which translate source-language statements into object-language statements for immediate execution. Other processing programs are service or utility programs, such as those that "dump" computer memory to external storage for safekeeping and those that enable the programmer to "trace" program execution, and application programs, which perform business and scientific functions, such as payroll processing, accounts payable and receivable posting, word processing, and simulation of environmental conditions.

See F. Maddix and G. Morgan, Systems Software: An Introduction to Language Processors and Operating Systems (1989).

Computer programs (also software programs, or just programs) are instructions for a computer.. A computer requires programs to function. Moreover, a computer program does not run unless its instructions are executed by a central processor; however, a program may communicate an algorithm to people without running. Computer programs are usually executable programs or the source code from which executable programs are derived (e.g., compiled).

Computer source code is often written by professional computer programmers. Source code is written in a programming language that usually follows one of two main paradigms: imperative or declarative programming. Source code may be converted into an executable file (sometimes called an executable program or a binary) by a compiler. Alternatively, computer programs may be executed by a central processing unit with the aid of an interpreter, or may be embedded directly into hardware.

Computer programs may be categorized along functional lines: system software and application software. And many computer programs may run simultaneously on a single computer, a process known as multitasking.


#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
puts("Hello world!");
return 0;
Source code of a program written in the C programming language

Computer programming is the iterative process of writing or editing source code. Editing source code involves testing, analyzing, and refining, and sometimes coordinating with other programmers on a jointly developed program. A person who practices this skill is referred to as a computer programmer or software developer. The sometimes lengthy process of computer programming is usually referred to as software development. The term software engineering is becoming popular as the process is seen as an engineering discipline.


Computer programs can be categorized by the programming language paradigm used to produce them. Two of the main paradigms are imperative and declarative.

Programs written using an imperative language specify an algorithm using declarations, expressions, and statements. A declaration associates a variable name with a datatype. For example: var x: integer; . An expression yields a value. For example: 2 + 2 yields 4. Finally, a statement might assign an expression to a variable or use the value of a variable to alter the program's control flow. For example: x := 2 + 2; if x = 4 then do_something(); One criticism of imperative languages is the side-effect of an assignment statement on a class of variables called non-local variables.

Programs written using a declarative language specify the properties that have to be met by the output and do not specify any implementation details. Two broad categories of declarative languages are functional languages and logical languages. The principle behind functional languages (like Haskell) is to not allow side-effects, which makes it easier to reason about programs like mathematical functions. The principle behind logical languages (like Prolog) is to define the problem to be solved — the goal — and leave the detailed solution to the Prolog system itself. The goal is defined by providing a list of subgoals. Then each subgoal is defined by further providing a list of its subgoals, etc. If a path of subgoals fails to find a solution, then that subgoal is backtracked and another path is systematically attempted.

The form in which a program is created may be textual or visual. In a visual language program, elements are graphically manipulated rather than textually specified.

Compilation or interpretation

A computer program in the form of a human-readable, computer programming language is called source code. Source code may be converted into an executable image by a compiler or executed immediately with the aid of an interpreter.

Compiled computer programs are commonly referred to as executables, binary images, or simply as binaries — a reference to the binary file format used to store the executable code. Compilers are used to translate source code from a programming language into either object code or machine code. Object code needs further processing to become machine code, and machine code is the Central Processing Unit's native code, ready for execution.

Interpreted computer programs are either decoded and then immediately executed or are decoded into some efficient intermediate representation for future execution. BASIC, Perl, and Python are examples of immediately executed computer programs. Alternatively, Java computer programs are compiled ahead of time and stored as a machine independent code called bytecode. Bytecode is then executed upon request by an interpreter called a virtual machine.

The main disadvantage of interpreters is computer programs run slower than if compiled. Interpreting code is slower than running the compiled version because the interpreter must decode each statement each time it is loaded and then perform the desired action. On the other hand, software development may be quicker using an interpreter because testing is immediate when the compilation step is omitted. Another disadvantage of interpreters is the interpreter must be present on the computer at the time the computer program is executed. By contrast, compiled computer programs need not have the compiler present at the time of execution.

No properties of a programming language require it to be exclusively compiled or exclusively interpreted. The categorization usually reflects the most popular method of language execution. For example, BASIC is thought of as an interpreted language and C a compiled language, despite the existence of BASIC compilers and C interpreters. Some systems use Just-in-time compilation (JIT) whereby sections of the source are compiled 'on the fly' and stored for subsequent executions.

Self-modifying programs

A computer program in execution is normally treated as being different from the data the program operates on. However, in some cases this distinction is blurred when a computer program modifies itself. The modified computer program is subsequently executed as part of the same program. Self-modifying code is possible for programs written in Machine code, Assembler, Lisp, COBOL, PL/1 and Prolog and probably many others. Sometimes self modification is used as a form of dynamic optimization where the code becomes more efficient through caching or similar techniques. The technique is also often used to nullify all overhead of already embedded debugging code after a 'one time' test decides that debugging should be 'switched off' for the run. Early mainframe operating systems allowed program overlays as a normal practice for application programs, to conserve memory.

Execution and storage

Typically, computer programs are stored in non-volatile memory until requested either directly or indirectly to be executed by the computer user. Upon such a request, the program is loaded into random access memory, by a computer program called an operating system, where it can be accessed directly by the central processor. The central processor then executes ("runs") the program, instruction by instruction, until termination. A program in execution is called a process. Termination is either by normal self-termination or by error — software or hardware error.

Embedded programs

Some computer programs are embedded into hardware. A stored-program computer requires an initial computer program stored in its read-only memory to boot. The boot process is to identify and initialize all aspects of the system, from CPU registers to device controllers to memory contents. Following the initialization process, this initial computer program loads the operating system and sets the program counter to begin normal operations. Independent of the host computer, a hardware device might have embedded firmware to control its operation. Firmware is used when the computer program is rarely or never expected to change, or when the program must not be lost when the power is off.

Manual programming

Computer programs historically were manually input to the central processor via switches. An instruction was represented by a configuration of on/off settings. After setting the configuration, an execute button was pressed. This process was then repeated. Computer programs also historically were manually input via paper tape or punched cards. After the medium was loaded, the starting address was set via switches and the execute button pressed.

Automatic program generation

Generative programming is a style of computer programming that creates source code through generic classes, prototypes, templates, aspects, and code generators to improve programmer productivity. Source code is generated with programming tools such as a template processor or an Integrated Development Environment. The simplest form of source code generator is a macro processor, such as the C preprocessor, which replaces patterns in source code according to relatively simple rules.

Software engines output source code or markup code that simultaneously become the input to another computer process. The analogy is that of one process driving another process, with the computer code being burned as fuel. Application servers are software engines that deliver applications to client computers. For example, a Wiki is an application server that allows users to build dynamic content assembled from articles. Wikis generate HTML, CSS, Java, and Javascript which are then interpreted by a web browser.

Simultaneous execution

Many operating systems support multitasking which enables many computer programs to appear to be running simultaneously on a single computer. Operating systems may run multiple programs through process scheduling — a software mechanism to switch the CPU among processes frequently so that users can interact with each program while it is running. Within hardware, modern day multiprocessor computers or computers with multicore processors may run multiple programs.

Functional categories

Computer programs may be categorized along functional lines. These functional categories are system software and application software. System software includes the operating system which couples the computer's hardware with the application software. The purpose of the operating system is to provide an environment in which application software executes in a convenient and efficient manner. In addition to the operating system, system software includes utility programs that help manage and tune the computer. If a computer program is not system software then it is application software. Application software includes middleware, which couples the system software with the user interface. Application software also includes utility programs that help users solve application problems, like the need for sorting.

See Also


Further reading


  • Knuth, Donald E. (1997). The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 2, 3rd Edition. Boston: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-89684-2.
  • Knuth, Donald E. (1997). The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 3, 3rd Edition. Boston: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-89685-0.

External links

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