Added to Favorites

Definitions

In topology, completely Hausdorff spaces and Urysohn (or T_{2½}) spaces are types of topological spaces satisfying slightly stronger separation axioms than the more familiar Hausdorff space.
## Definitions

## Naming conventions

## Relation to other separation axioms

One can find counterexamples showing that none of these implications reverse.
## Examples

## Notes

## References

Suppose that X is a topological space. Let x and y be points in X.

- We say that x and y can be separated by closed neighborhoods if there exists a closed neighborhood U of x and a closed neighborhood V of y such that U and V are disjoint (U ∩ V = ∅). (Note that a "closed neighborhood of x" is a closed set that contains an open set containing x.)
- We say that x and y can be separated by a function if there exists a continuous function f : X → [0,1] (the unit interval) with f(x) = 0 and f(y) = 1.

A Urysohn space, or T_{2½} space, is a space in which any two distinct points can be separated by closed neighborhoods.

A completely Hausdorff space, or functionally Hausdorff space, is a space in which any two distinct points can be separated by a function.

The study of separation axioms is notorious for conflicts with naming conventions used. The definitions used in this article are those given by Willard (1970) and are the more modern definitions. Steen and Seebach (1970) and various other authors reverse the definition of completely Hausdorff spaces and Urysohn spaces. Readers of textbooks in topology must be sure to check the definitions used by the author. See History of the separation axioms for more on this issue.

It is an easy exercise to show that any two points which can be separated by a function can be separated by closed neighborhoods. If they can be separated by closed neighborhoods then clearly they can be separated by neighborhoods. It follows that every completely Hausdorff space is Urysohn and every Urysohn space is Hausdorff.

One can also show that every regular Hausdorff space is Urysohn and every Tychonoff space (=completely regular Hausdorff space) is completely Hausdorff. In summary we have the following implications:

Tychonoff (T_{3½})
| $Rightarrow$ | regular Hausdorff (T_{3}) | ||||

$Downarrow$ | $Downarrow$ | |||||

completely Hausdorff | $Rightarrow$ | Urysohn (T_{2½})
| $Rightarrow$ | Hausdorff (T_{2})
| $Rightarrow$ | T_{1} |

The cocountable extension topology is the topology on the real line generated by the union of the usual Euclidean topology and the cocountable topology. Sets are open in this topology if and only if they are of the form U A where U is open in the Euclidean topology and A is countable. This space is completely Hausdorff and Urysohn, but not regular (and thus not Tychonoff).

There are obscure examples of spaces which are Hausdorff but not Urysohn, and spaces which are Urysohn but not completely Hausdorff or regular Hausdorff. For details see Steen and Seebach.

- Stephen Willard, General Topology, Addison-Wesley, 1970. Reprinted by Dover Publications, New York, 2004. ISBN 0-486-43479-6 (Dover edition).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia © 2001-2006 Wikipedia contributors (Disclaimer)

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Last updated on Tuesday September 02, 2008 at 06:52:32 PDT (GMT -0700)

View this article at Wikipedia.org - Edit this article at Wikipedia.org - Donate to the Wikimedia Foundation

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Last updated on Tuesday September 02, 2008 at 06:52:32 PDT (GMT -0700)

View this article at Wikipedia.org - Edit this article at Wikipedia.org - Donate to the Wikimedia Foundation

Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.