graphic design

The art and profession of selecting and arranging visual elements—such as typography, images, symbols, and colours—to convey a message to an audience. Sometimes graphic design is called “visual communications.” It is a collaborative discipline: writers produce words and photographers and illustrators create images that the designer incorporates into a complete visual message. Although graphic design has been practiced in various forms throughout history, it emerged as a specific profession during the job-specialization process that occurred in the late 19th century. Its evolution has been closely bound to developments in image making, typography, and reproduction processes. Prominent graphic designers include Jules Chéret, Piet Zwart, Paul Rand, Alexey Brodovitch, Milton Glaser, and David Carson.

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The satellite's solar panels are arrays of solar cells that provide the electrical energy needed elipsis

Earth-orbiting system capable of receiving a signal (e.g., data, voice, TV) and relaying it back to the ground. Communications satellites have been a significant part of domestic and global communications since the 1970s. Typically they move in geosynchronous orbits about 22,300 mi (35,900 km) above the earth and operate at frequencies near 4 gigahertz (GHz) for downlinking and 6 GHz for uplinking.

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In telecommunication, communications-electronics (C-E) is the specialized field concerned with the use of electronic devices and systems for the acquisition or acceptance, processing, storage, display, analysis, protection, disposition, and transfer of information.

C-E includes the wide range of responsibilities and actions relating to:

  • Electronic devices and systems used in the transfer of ideas and perceptions;
  • Electronic sensors and sensory systems used in the acquisition of information devoid of semantic influence;
  • Electronic devices and systems intended to allow friendly forces to operate in hostile environments and to deny to hostile forces the effective use of electromagnetic resources.

Electronic Communications Equipment

Communication electronics radio equipment has been a rapidly growing industry for more than a century. Homeland Security in the USA is one of the reasons for the fast growth. Since the invention of the “solid state” transistor in the 1950’s and the TTL (transistor-transistor logic) that led to the development of the IC (integrated circuit) in the 1960’s the growth in the field of electronics has been phenomenal. As now witnessed in the “radio communications” field. The latest trend is to send conventional LMR (land-mobile-radio) signals over the Internet (Internet Protocol) this is called RoIP (Radio over Internet Protocol), which is just like VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) but uses the radio. By sending signals over the Internet it allows radios to be connected together all over the world. Hence: the “Communications Revolution”.

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