, abbreviated C. M.
, is a poetic meter
consisting of four lines which alternate between iambic
tetrametre (four metrical feet per line, with each foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable) and iambic trimetre (three metrical feet per line, with each foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable), rhyming in the pattern a-b-a-b
. It has historically been used for ballads
such as Tam Lin
, and hymns
such as "Amazing Grace
" and the Christmas carol
"While Shepherds Watched their Flocks By Night".
A variant of the common metre is the ballad metre
, which was used in ballads
. Like common metre, it has stanzas of four iambic lines. The difference is that ballad metre is "less regular and more conversational" than common metre, and does not necessarily rhyme both sets of lines. Only the second and fourth lines must rhyme in ballad metre.
Another closely related form is the fourteener, consisting of iambic heptameter couplets: instead of alternating lines of iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter, rhyming a-b-a-b or a-b-x-b, a fourteener joins the tetrameter and trimeter lines, converting four-line stanzas into couplets of seven iambic feet, rhyming a-a.
The first and third lines in common metre typically have four stresses (tetrameter), and the second and fourth have three stresses (trimeter). Ballad metre sometimes follows this stress pattern less strictly than common metre. The fourteener also gives the poet somewhat greater flexibility, in that its long lines invite the use of variably placed caesuras and spondees to achieve metrical variety, in place of a fixed pattern iambs and line breaks.
Common metre is often used in hymns, like this one by John Newton. (see hymn metres)
- Amazing Grace, how sweet the sound,
- That saved a wretch like me!
- I once was lost, but now am found,
- Was blind, but now I see.
- — from John Newton's "Amazing Grace"
William Wordsworth's "Lucy Poems" are also in common metre.
- A slumber did my spirit seal;
- I had no human fears:
- She seemed a thing that could not feel
- The touch of earthly years.
- — from William Wordsworth's "A slumber did my spirit seal"
Many of the poems of Emily Dickinson use ballad metre.
- Because I could not stop for Death,
- He kindly stopped for me;
- The Carriage held but just Ourselves
- And Immortality.
- — from Emily Dickinson's poem #712
A modern example of ballad metre is the theme song to Gilligan's Island. (Note that the first two lines actually contain anapaests in place of iambs; this is an example of how ballad metre is metrically less strict than common metre).
- Just sit right back and you'll hear a tale,
- a tale of a fateful trip.
- That started from this tropic port,
- aboard this tiny ship.
"Gascoigns Good Night", by the English Renaissance poet George Gascoigne, employs fourteeners.
- The stretching arms, the yawning breath, which I to bedward use,
- Are patterns of the pangs of death, when life will me refuse:
- And of my bed each sundry part in shadows doth resemble,
- The sundry shapes of death, whose dart shall make my flesh to tremble.
- — from George Gascoigne's "Gascoigns Good Night"
The fourteener is also found in popular or folk songs such as "The Yellow Rose of Texas".
- There's a yellow rose in Texas, that I am going down to see,
- No other fellow loves her, as half as much as me.
- She cried so when I left her, it nearly broke my heart
- And if I ever find her, we never more will part.