Commiphora is a genus of flowering plants. It includes about 185 species of trees and shrubs, often armed or thorny, native to Africa, Arabia, and the Indian subcontinent.


Several of these species produce fragrant resins used for incense, perfume, and medication, including Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) and Balsam of Mecca (C. opobalsamum).

Selected species

  • Commiphora africana (syn. Heudelotia africana), sometimes identified with ancient bdellium.
  • Commiphora angolensis, also known as "sand commiphora", growing mainly in Angola and Namibia.
  • Commiphora boranensis
  • Commiphora caudata
  • Commiphora corrugata
  • Commiphora gileadensis (syn. Commiphora opobalsamum), producing balsam of Mecca.
  • Commiphora habessinica
  • Commiphora humbertii
  • Commiphora kataf (syn. Commiphora erythraea), producing bisabol.
  • Commiphora madagascariensis
  • Commiphora mossambicensis
  • Commiphora myrrha (syn. Commiphora molmol), producing myrrh.
  • Commiphora schimperi
  • Commiphora stocksiana, known in Pakistan as bayisa gugal
  • Commiphora wightii (syn. Commiphora mukul), producing gum guggul, sometimes identified with ancient bdellium.

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