|North American Apollo CSM|
Apollo CSM in lunar orbit
|Role:||Earth and Lunar Orbit|
|Crew:||3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot|
|Height:||36.2 ft||11.03 m|
|Diameter:||12.8 ft||3.9 m|
|Volume:||218 ft³||6.17 m³|
|Command module:||12,807 lb||5,809 kg|
|Service module:||54,064 lb||24,523 kg|
|Total:||66,871 lb||30,332 kg|
|CM RCS (N2O4/UDMH) x 12:||92 lbf ea||409 N|
|SM RCS (N2O4/UDMH) x 16:||100 lbf ea||445 N|
|Service Propulsion System|
(N2O4/Aerozine 50 ) x 1:
|20,500 lbf||91.2 kN|
|Endurance:||14 days||200 orbits|
|Apogee:||240,000 miles||386,200 km|
|Perigee:||100 miles||160 km|
|Spacecraft delta v:||9,200 ft/s||2,800 m/s|
|Apollo CSM diagram|
Apollo CSM diagram (NASA)
|North American Apollo CSM|
The spacecraft, as its name suggests, consisted of two segments, the command module (reentry capsule) which housed the crew and the equipment needed for re-entry and splashdown, and a service module that provided propulsion, electrical power and storage for various consumables required during a mission. The service module would be cast off and allowed to burn up in the atmosphere before the command module re-entered and brought the crew home.
The aft heat shield consisted of four brazed honeycomb panels, four spot-welded sheet metal fairings, and a circumferential ring. The fairing segments were attached to the honeycomb panels and ring with conventional fasteners. The steel honeycomb core and outer face sheets were then thermally bonded to the inner skin in a giant autoclave. The aft heat shield is nearly identical to the central, with the exception of the outer alluminized PET film layer.
The CM had its center of mass offset a foot or so from the axial symmetry of the capsule- this angled the capsule during reentry and gave a small amount of lift (a lift to drag ratio of about 0.368). The capsule was then steered by rotating the capsule using thrusters; when no steering was required, the capsule was spun slowly, and the lift effects cancelled out. This system greatly reduced the g-force experienced by the astronauts, permitted a reasonable amount of cross range and allowed the capsule to be targeted within a few miles.
At 24,000 feet (7.3 km) the forward heat shield was jettisoned using four pressurized-gas compression springs. The drogue parachutes were then released and slowed the spacecraft to 125 miles per hour (201 km/h). At 10,700 feet (3.3 km) the drogues were jettisoned. The pilot parachutes were deployed, which pulled out the mains. These slowed the CM to 22 miles per hour (35 km/h). The Apollo CM can safely parachute to an ocean landing with at least two parachutes (as it happened on Apollo 15), as the third parachute acted as a safety precaution.
The Unified Crew Hatch (UCH) measured 29 inches (737 mm) high, 34 inches (864 mm) wide, and weighed 225 pounds (102 kg). It was operated by a pump handle, which drove a ratchet mechanism to open or close 15 latches simultaneously.
The docking probe consisted of three shock attenuators, three tension linkages, a retractable and extendable probe, and two power umbilicals. Before docking, a crewman in the CM extended the probe. When it came in contact with the drogue, three capture latches in the probe head held the two modules together. The probe was retracted, pulling the CM and LM together. Twelve latches attached to the forward docking ring automatically activated to form an air-tight seal.
At LM separation, the probe and forward docking ring were pyrotechnically separated leaving all docking equipment with the lunar module.
Dominating the forward section of the cabin was the crescent-shaped main display panel measuring nearly seven feet (2.1 m) wide and three feet (0.9 m) tall. It was arranged into three panels, each emphasizing the duties of each crew member. The mission commander’s panel (left side) included the velocity, attitude, and altitude indicators, the primary flight controls, and the main FDAI (Flight Director Attitude Indicator).
The CM pilot’s panel (middle) included the Guidance and Navigation computer controls, the caution and warning indicator panel, the event timer, the service propulsion system and RCS controls, and the environmental control system controls.
Flanking the right side of the main panel were sets of smaller control panels. On the left side were a circuit breaker panel, audio controls, and the SCS power controls. On the right were additional circuit breakers and a redundant audio control panel, along with the environmental control switches. In total, the command module panels included 24 instruments, 566 switches, 40 event indicators, and 71 lights.
The three crew couches were constructed from hollow steel tubing and covered in a heavy, fireproof cloth, known as Armalon. The leg pans of the two outer couches could be folded in a variety of positions, while the hip pan of the center couch can be disconnected and laid on the aft bulkhead. One rotational and one translation hand controller was installed on the armrests of the commander’s couch. The LM pilot and CM pilot couches had rotational controllers only. The couches rested on eight shock attenuation struts to ease the impact of splashdown.
There are a total of six equipment bays in the cabin:
The CM had five windows. The side windows measured 13 inches (330 mm) square and were installed to the side of the left and right-hand couches. The triangular rendezvous windows measured 8 by 13 inches (204 by 330 mm) and were used to aid in docking and rendezvous maneuvers. The hatch window was 9 inches (229 mm) in diameter and was directly over the cm pilot’s couch. Each window assembly consisted of three thick panes of glass. The inner two panes, which were made of aluminosilicate,made up part of the capsules pressure vessel, the fused silica outer pane served as both a debris shield and as part of the capsules heat shield. Each pane had an anti-reflective coating and a blue-red reflective coating on the inner surface.
The Service Module was an unpressurized cylindrical structure, measuring 24 feet 7 inches (7.5 m) long and 12 feet 10 inches (3.9 m) in diameter. It housed the service propulsion system and its propellants, the fuel cell power system, four maneuvering thruster quads, the S-band antenna for communication with Mission Control, and storage tanks for water and air. On Apollo 15, 16 and 17 it also carried a scientific instrument package. It was connected to the Command module using three tension ties and six compression pads. The tension ties were stainless steel straps bolted to the CM's aft heat shield.
The 91.2 kN Service Propulsion System (SPS) was used to place the Apollo spacecraft into and out of lunar orbit, and for mid-course corrections between the Earth and Moon. The SPS used a single AJ10-137 engine.
The Service module remained attached to the Command Module throughout the mission. It was jettisoned just prior to re-entry into the earth's atmosphere.
The Service Module was a simple structure consisting of a center section and six pie-shaped sectors. The basic components were the forward bulkhead and fairing, six radial beams, four honeycomb panels, and the aft bulkhead and heat shield.
The forward fairing measured 2 feet 10 inches (864 mm) long and included the RCS computer, umbilical connection, power distribution block, ECS controller, separation controller, and components for the high-gain antenna. The umbilical housing contained the main electrical and plumbing connections from the SM. At SM jettison, the connections were cut using a pyrotechnic-activated guillotine assembly.
Four clusters of reaction control jets were installed around the upper section of the SM every 90 degrees. Each thruster generated approximately 445 N of thrust, and used MMH for fuel and N204 as oxidizer. Each quad assembly measures 8 by 3 feet (2.4 by 0.9 m) and has a single fuel tank, an oxidizer tank, and its associated valves and regulators.
The central tunnel housed the service propulsion engine and its two helium pressurant tanks. The engine used Aerozine 50 (hydrazine/UDMH) fuel and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and had a maximum thrust of 20,500 lbf (91.2 kN). It is 152.82 inches (3.882 m) long and 98.48 inches (2.501 m) wide at the base.
Mounted on the top of the aft bulkhead was the S-band high-gain antenna. This was used for deep space communications, and was composed of 4 x 31 inch (787 mm) diameter reflectors and a single 11 inch (279 mm) square reflector. During launch, it was folded down parallel to the main engine. After launch, it deployed at a right angle to the SM.
Also on the SM exterior were a retractable forward-facing spotlight, an EVA floodlight, and a flashing rendezvous beacon visible from 100 kilometers away. Following jettison, the SM translation jets automatically fired aft to distance it from the CM. The roll jets were fired for five seconds to ensure faster break-up on re-entry.
|Serial number||Use||Launch date||Current location|
|CSM-001||systems compatibility test vehicle||presumably scrapped|
|CSM-002||A-004||January 20, 1966||Command Module on display at Cradle of Aviation, Long Island, New York|
|CSM-004||static and thermal structural ground tests||scrapped|
|CSM-007||various tests including acoustic vibrations and drop tests||Command Module on display at Museum of Flight, Seattle, Washington|
|CSM-008||complete systems spacecraft used in thermal vacuum tests||scrapped|
|CSM-009||AS-201 and drop tests||February 26, 1966||Command Module on display at Strategic Air and Space Museum, Ashland, Nebraska|
|CSM-010||Command Module on display at U.S. Space & Rocket Center, Huntsville, Alabama|
|CSM-011||AS-202||August 25, 1966||Command Module on display on the USS Hornet museum, in Alameda, California|
|CSM-012||Apollo 1; The Command Module was severely damaged in the Apollo 1 fire||Command Module in storage at the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia|
|CSM-014||Command Module disassembled as part of Apollo 1 investigation. Service Module (SM-014) used on Apollo 6 mission||April 4, 1968|
|CSM-017||Apollo 4||November 9, 1967||Command Module on display at Stennis Space Center, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi|
|CSM-020||CM-020 flew on Apollo 6 with SM-014 after SM-020 was destroyed in an explosion||April 4, 1968||Command Module on display at Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta|
|Serial number||Use||Launch date||Current location|
|CSM-098||used in thermal vacuum test||CSM on display at Academy of Science Museum, Moscow, Russia|
|CSM-099||static structural testing||scrapped|
|CSM-100||static structural testing||unknown|
|CSM-101||Apollo 7||October 11, 1968||Command Module was on display at National Museum of Science & Technology, Ottawa, Canada from 1974 until 2004, now at the Frontiers of Flight Museum, Dallas, TX after 30 years of being on loan.|
|CSM-102||Launch Complex 34 checkout vehicle||scrapped|
|CSM-103||Apollo 8||December 21, 1968||Command Module on display at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago|
|CSM-104 Gumdrop||Apollo 9||March 3, 1969||Command Module on display at San Diego Aerospace Museum|
|CSM-105||acoustic tests||Command Module on display at National Air & Space Museum, Washington DC as part of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project display. (Soyuz replica at smithsonian - from-DC1.jpg)|
|CSM-106 Charlie Brown||Apollo 10||May 18, 1969||Command Module on display at Science Museum, London|
|CSM-107 Columbia||Apollo 11||July 16, 1969||Command Module on display at National Air & Space Museum, Washington DC|
|CSM-108 Yankee Clipper||Apollo 12||November 14, 1969||Command Module on display at Virginia Air & Space Center, Hampton, Virginia|
|CSM-109 Odyssey||Apollo 13||April 11, 1970||Command Module on display at Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center|
|CSM-110 Kitty Hawk||Apollo 14||January 31, 1971||Command Module on display at United States Astronaut Hall of Fame, Titusville, Florida|
|CSM-111||Apollo Soyuz Test Project||July 15, 1975||Command Module currently on display at California Science Center in Los Angeles, California (formerly displayed at the Kennedy Space Center's Visitor's Complex)|
|CSM-112 Endeavour||Apollo 15||July 26, 1971||Command Module on display at National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio|
|CSM-113 Casper||Apollo 16||April 16, 1972||Command Module on display at U.S. Space & Rocket Center, Huntsville, Alabama|
|CSM-114 America||Apollo 17||December 7, 1972||Command Module on display at Space Center Houston, Houston, Texas|
|CSM-115||cancelled||Never fully completed. On display as part of the Saturn V display at Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas|
|CSM-116||Skylab 2||May 25, 1973||Command Module on display at National Museum of Naval Aviation, Pensacola, Florida|
|CSM-117||Skylab 3||July 28, 1973||Command Module on display at Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio|
|CSM-118||Skylab 4||November 16, 1973||Command Module on display at National Air & Space Museum, Washington DC|
|CSM-119||Skylab Rescue and ASTP backup||On display at the Kennedy Space Center|