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Works influenced by Alice in Wonderland

Lewis Carroll's books Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass have continuously had a large cultural influence since they were published. Even today, Alice and the rest of Wonderland continue to inspire or influence many other works of art—sometimes indirectly; via the Disney movie, for example. The character of the plucky yet proper Alice has proven immensely popular and inspired similar heroines in literature and pop culture, many also named Alice in homage. This article is about works influenced by Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

History

Carolyn Sigler has shown that Carroll's two great fantasies inspired dozens of imitations, responses, and parodies during the remainder of the nineteenth century and the first part of the twentieth — so many that Carroll at one point began his own collection of Alice imitations. In 1887, one critic suggested that Carroll had plagiarized Tom Hood's From Nowhere to the North Pole (1875) when writing Alice — though the relationship was just the reverse: Hood's novel was one of the many Alice imitations.

The primary wave of Alice-inspired works slackened after about 1920, though Carroll's influence on other writers has never fully waned; it can be seen in recent books like Maeve Kelly's Alice in Thunderland (1993) and Alison Haben's Dreamhouse (1995).

Themes

Numerous works have borrowed the characters and incidents of the Alice books to illustrate "altered state" experiences brought about by psychedelic drugs. Other works focus on the prepubescent eroticism or "lolita complex" subtly evident in the main text. In addition, Wonderland's bizarre, completely illogical setting has inspired darker works about a loss of the ability to distinguish between fantasy and reality.

Perhaps because of the contents of his books, it is often said that Lewis Carroll was an opium addict. However, there is no evidence for this -- see the article on him for details. On the other hand, his fascination with little girls, to the point of photographing them nude, is very well documented. In his diary entries, he expressed interest in surreality, the subconscious, and the borders between sanity and insanity.

Medicine

The name of the neurological condition Alice in Wonderland syndrome, in which objects are perceived to be substantially larger or smaller than in actuality, is derived from passages in the book.

Psychology

One of Carl Jung's favourite quotes on Synchronicity was from Through the Looking-Glass, where the White Queen says to Alice: "It's a poor sort of memory that only works backwards".

Literature

  • The novel, "The Whole," or "Duh Whole" (published by Simon & Schuster/Pocket Books/MTV Books), by John Reed, features an MTV VJ following a psychedelic Black Rabbit into the depths of a hole that has appeared in the United States Heartland.
  • Alice in Puzzle-Land: A Carrollian Tale for Children Under Eighty by Raymond Smullyan is a book of riddles featuring Carroll's characters as protagonists.
  • Finnegans Wake by James Joyce is famously influenced by Alice. The novel is about a dream, and includes such lines as: "Alicious, twinstreams twinestraines, through alluring glass or alas in jumboland?" and "...Wonderlawn's lost us for ever. Alis, alas, she broke the glass! Liddell lokker through the leafery, ours is mystery of pain."
  • Tad Williams' science fiction series Otherland is heavily influenced by Alice. There are sections involving a Red Queen, the chess-squares concept from Looking Glass, and evil men following the protagonists who take the form of Tweedledum and Tweedledee several times.
  • Vladimir Nabokov translated Alice into his native Russian as Аня в Стране Чудес (Anya in Wonderland). His novels include many Carrollian allusions, such as the spoof book titles that run through Ada, or Ardor. However, Nabokov told his student and annotator Alfred Appel that the infamous Lolita, with its paedophilic protagonist, makes no conscious allusions to Carroll (despite the novel's photography theme and Carroll's interest in the art form).
  • John Crowley's Little, Big has many Carrollian allusions.
  • Mordant's Need is a two-volume fantasy book series by Stephen R. Donaldson which tells the story of a woman named Terisa who travels from modern Earth to a medieval setting where there is a form of magic based on mirrors. Instead of reflecting images, mirrors are used to "translate" people and things between locations and realities. The author also bases much of the plot on a metaphor of the game of checkers (called "hop-board" in the story) instead of chess.
  • British writer Jeff Noon has inserted many Carrollian allusions into a series of cyberpunk novels, beginning with Vurt (1993), that are set in a fantasy-future Manchester. In the books, Noon applies a logical extension of the Wonderland and Looking-Glass World concepts into a virtual reality cyberverse that characters occasionally get lost in. One possible interpretation of the books is that everything happens in the dream of Alice, akin to the supposed "dream of the Red King" in Through the Looking-Glass. Noon also wrote Automated Alice, which he calls a "trequel" to the Alice books as well as being a continuation of the Vurt series. In this illustrated novella, Alice enters a grandfather clock and emerges in future Manchester, which has many bizarre denizens including an invisible cat named Quark and Celia, the Automated Alice.
  • Alice Liddell is a character in the Riverworld series of science fiction books by Philip José Farmer.
  • Sign of Chaos, written by Roger Zelazny as part of The Chronicles of Amber, features two chapters taking place in a manufactured Shadow designed to resemble Wonderland as part of a drug-induced hallucination.
  • Gilbert Adair paid tribute to Carroll in a further Alice adventure: Alice Through the Needle's Eye (1984).
  • The Looking Glass Wars, and its follow-up novel, Seeing Redd, written by Frank Beddor depicts an alternative to Carroll's Alice, implying that Carroll in fact distorted the story of Princess Alyss Heart (AKA Alice Liddell) who had been sent to Earth when the evil Queen Redd conquered Wonderland. The series follows Alyss' exploits with familiar characters cast in new roles.
  • Alice in Quantumland, by Robert Gilmore, is an allegory of quantum mechanics told through the adventures of Alice's explorations of the world of modern physics, with quanta depicted as eccentric characters similar to those in Wonderland, and quantum laws as the nonsensical or counter-intuitive rules governing Carroll's world.
  • A New Alice in the Old Wonderland is an 1895 novel by Anna M. Richards.
  • Paul Auster's City of Glass contains a reference to Chapter IV: Humpty Dumpty of Through the Looking-Glass.
  • HaJaBaRaLa, a Bengali "nonsense story" by Sukumar Ray, features a little boy who enters into a fantasy world full of fantastic comic creatures.
  • Thomas Ligotti's 1985 short story "Alice's Last Adventure" is a present-day horror tale using Carroll-derived imagery.
  • Douglas Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach contains numerous references to Alice in Wonderland.
  • Carroll's work is a major subtext in Joyce Carol Oates's novel Wonderland.
  • The heroine of Boris Starling's Vodka (2004) is called Alice Liddell, symbolising not only her journey through the surreal shifting sands of post-Soviet Russian politics but also her battle against alcoholism (referenced by the bottle which appears to the original Alice saying 'drink me').
  • Neil Gaiman's Coraline.
  • Robert Doucette's "Why a Raven is like a Writing Desk: A Wonderland Mystery" (2006) is a short fable that attempts to answer the riddle from the Mad Tea-Party.
  • The title of teen novel Go Ask Alice is taken from the psychedelic song by Jefferson Airplane, "White Rabbit", which took major imagery from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
  • The first novel in the Echo Falls series by Peter Abrahams, called Down the Rabbit Hole, features main character Ingrid Levin-Hill starring in a stage production of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
  • Andrzej Sapkowski's short story "Złote popołudnie" ("Golden Afternoon") retells the story of Alice from the point of view of the Cheshire Cat.
  • In the eleventh book of A Series of Unfortunate Events, one of the stanzas of the poem "The Walrus and the Carpenter" is worded in a coded message. There is also a beach named Briny Beach.
  • Little Mimzy Wells by Markiv Inias is influenced heavily by Caroll's works, and draws liberally from the themes present in said novels.
  • Night of the Jabberwock by Fredric Brown includes a character who is a member of a society that believes Lewis Carroll's books to be visions of an actual world.
  • Alice's Journey Beyond the Moon, by R. J. Carter (ISBN 1903889766, Telos Publishing), fictionally purports to be a second sequel. It is heavily footnoted, however, with valid biographical information on both Dodgson and Liddell.
  • The King in the Window by Adam Gopnik.
  • Davy and the Goblin; or, What Followed Reading "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" (1884) by Charles E. Carryl.
  • Aliss is a novel by French Canadian writer Patrick Sénécal.
  • Uncle Albert and the Quantum Quest, a children's science book by Russell Stannard.

Humour

  • Alan Coren published a short story about Lewis Carroll being late at the printers, with the consequence that no proof reading took place before publication of his poem "January" (T'was chilly and the slimy roads / Did shine and shimer in the rain...) The story was published in "The Rhinestone as Big as the Ritz" (1979).
  • Brad Craddock recently published a humorous book entitled Alice's Misadventures Underground (2006), wherein he promotes the idea that Lewis Carroll was a fraud, stealing all his ideas from the unknown Victorian author and rival: Lewis C. Swanson. The novel revamps the Alice in Wonderland story with various parodies of literary styles including T. S. Eliot, Nathaniel Hawthorne, H. P. Lovecraft, Gertrude Stein, Charles Dickens, Jack Kerouac and many others. The book satirizes the institutions of education, war, religion, and the current political climate in the United States.

Art

  • In 1969, Salvador Dalí produced 12 illustrations based on Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
  • In 1956 Charles Blackman heard an audio book of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, and painted a series of 46 paintings of Alice with other characters from the series.

Comics

  • Alice makes an appearance (in passing) in Alan Moore's The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen; more significantly, she is a main character in Moore's Lost Girls, which imagines her having erotic adventures.
  • Neil Gaiman has used Carollian imagery in his Sandman series. In one issue, a minor character called Zelda is depicted as Alice in a dream.
  • Alice appears in a number of graphic novels, such as Haunted Knight (where Alice meets Batman).
  • Hatter M. by Ben Templesmith is a comic book based around the character Hatter Madigan from the The Looking-Glass Wars by Frank Beddor.
  • The Mad Hatter is a recurring Batman villain, who has appeared in DC Comics since 1948. The Mad Hatter (Jervis Tetch) is quite insane, and is often portrayed as speaking only in quotes from Lewis Carroll’s books. A similar villain called the White Rabbit is seen in Marvel Comics as an enemy of Spider-Man.
  • Rozen Maiden focuses on a set of magical dolls that fight one another to become "Alice", alleged to be a creature of perfect femininity, purity, and beauty. A white rabbit that guides the dolls through worlds is also prominently featured and the dolls themselves also refer to various characters Alice encounters in the story. Also, the dolls going through mirrors is a reference to "Through the looking glass", the sequel to "Alice in Wonderland"
  • Kagihime Monogatari Eikyuu Alice Rondo, a manga that focuses on the completion of a third Alice novel called The Eternal Alice.
  • Miyuki-chan in Wonderland, an anime and manga by Clamp, is a sexy animated parody of Alice.
  • Alice Academy (Gakuen Alice) An anime series tells the story of a girl named Mikan Sakura, who is enrolled in an exclusive school for the people who have special powers called "Alices". In the opening sequence, Mikan falls and her dress becomes that of Alice's, also in a parachute.
  • The anime series Serial Experiments Lain tells the story of a girl who is drawn into the cyberspace "underground" of the Wired, and features a character named Arisu ("Alice") Mizuki (this character is a second use of one created by the scenarist, Chiaki Konaka, for the animation "Alice in Cyberland").
  • The manga Alice 19th by Yū Watase involves Alice's older sister being drawn into a darker Wonderland.
  • The comic Alice In Sexland by Mashumaro Jyuubaori is a mirror story to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland except that the character enters an extremely perverse and sexual fantasy world where she ends up participating in a wide variety of sexual adventures stemming from transsexual orgies to having sexual intercourse with a tree.
  • Bizenghast is a manga-style American comic by M. Alice Legrow. It makes many references to Alice & is comparable to American McGee's Alice in that the lead female character is like Alice McGee & Edaniel resembles the Tower Records glowing green Cheshire Cat.
  • Arkham Asylum: A Serious House on Serious Earth, in an interview with the writer of the graphic novel, Grant Morrison, his take on Batman was described as "a remake of the Lewis Carroll classic Alice's Adventures in Wonderland", to which he replied "I'd read the Alice books and decided to put Batman into a similar situation - where he goes into a strange place, strange things happen to him and then he comes back out at the end, none the wiser."
  • Alice in Sunderland - Carroll's connection with Sunderland, and the area's history, is documented in Bryan Talbot's 2007 graphic novel.
  • The first volume of the comic book series Exiles is titled "Down the Rabbit Hole," taking its name from the first chapter of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. The series has its stars visiting strange worlds, much like Alice does.
  • The series Project ARMS is influenced greatly by Alice in Wonderland, comparing many characters in the story to their Wonderland counterparts. Instead of focusing on Alice however, it focuses on the main character, Ryo Takatsuki or the Jabberwok.
  • In the Hades Ark of Angel Sanctuary, Kurai meets a demon named Belial who prefers to go by Mad Hatter. There is even a chapter cover with Kurai dressed as a gothic lolita version of Alice, and Belial as the Hatter.
  • In Godchild Volume 1, the entire first story has an Alice theme. For instance, the main title is "Mad Tea Party"; one of the main characters is named Alice, who has a dream in the beginning that the March Hare and Mad Hatter behead her at a tea party; the four girls (Victoria, Edith, Alice, and Lorina) hold tea parties they call "Golden Afternoons"; Edith, Lorina, and Alice are the names of the Lidell sisters, who (mainly Alice) were the inspiration for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland; the killer goes by the alias of the White Rabbit (he wears a white rabbit mask) and beheads his victims in the style of the Queen of Hearts; and the guest rooms in Victoria's home have paintings of Alice characters, which symbolize the theme of the room.
  • Return to Wonderland is a series that reinterprets the Alice story and has been followed by a sequel Beyond Wonderland.
  • Certain aliens in the first volume of Marvel Comics' Power Pack series were named for characters appearing in the Alice books and other works by Caroll; this was attributed to the alien Kymellians having studied Earth's literature, and particular Kymellians having an appreciation for Caroll's writing. In particular, Power Pack's most recurring nemeses, the lizard-like Zn'rx, were dubbed "Snarks" (after the titular creature in The Hunting of the Snark) by the Kymellian Aelfyre Whitemane, supposedly because their true racial name is "unpronounceable" by others. Others include an aircraft-sized avian creature dubbed a "Jubjub bird, and smaller, predatory winged creatures identified as "Bandersnatch (both names taken from Jabberwocky)
  • In the manga Ouran High School Host Club, there is a comedical, off-topic, parody of Alice in Wonderland.
  • The Puppet Show, a short adaptation by cartoonist Dave White, features the characters from the original novel, but in a darker tone. Set in a Victorian insane asylum, the cartoon explores the psychological horror created by the inhabitants of Wonderland.

Animation

  • Neco z Alenky (Alice) A 1988 full-length stop motion animation by Czech Republic artist Jan Švankmajer.
  • In Garfield and Friends, there was a U.S. Acres episode called "Orson in Wonderland" and Orson T. Pig experiences being in the story Alice in Wonderland.
  • There was an episode of Animaniacs titled 'Mindy in Wonderland', which spoofed the novel and the Disney movie by having Buttons the dog chase Mindy down a rabbit hole, having humorous meetings with the famous characters.
  • Brandy & Mr. Whiskers is somewhat similar to the Alice books; the main heroine falls into the Amazon because of a white rabbit, and encounters creatures like bickering twins and a tyrannical dictator.
  • The anime series InuYasha follows the adventures of a young girl who is drawn into a fantasy world when she falls down an old well. Viz, the company who translated the series into English, translated the title of the third episode as, "Down the Rabbit Hole and Back Again" and the second movie was called The Castle Beyond the Looking Glass.
  • An anime short film based on Alice in Wonderland was made by Sanrio, starring Hello Kitty as Alice. Released as part of Hello Kitty & Friends.
  • In the seventh season of The Simpsons, Lisa Simpson is almost lured into a library by Alice until she shows that the Mad Hatter has her at gunpoint in "Summer of 4 Ft. 2". In the fourteenth season, Maggie requests Moe to read Alice in Wonderland to her, where Moe uses references to the song White Rabbit, including White Rabbits and Chicks Poppin Mushroom Pills in Moe Baby Blues. In the same latter episode, Moe used parodied references like "Alice in Underpants" and "Putting on the Looking Glass".
  • Nippon Animation produced an anime of Alice in Wonderland in 1983 to 1984. This anime adopted an original story that Alice and her rabbit Benny take a trip to Wonderland and go home for each episode.
  • The anime series Rozen Maiden, it's sequel "Rozen Maiden: träumend" and it's prequel "Rozen Maiden: ouvertüre".
  • Kiddy Grade features two fraternal twins named Tweedledee and Tweedledum. They also pilot a ship known as the Cheshire Cat, which has powers similar to that of the Alice in Wonderland feline.
  • Batman: The Animated Series - the show has one character called "The Mad Hatter", who controls others and forces them to do evil with the use of cybernetic chips disguised as Hat-Size markers.
  • Alice SOS, where four kids go on an adventure to different worlds to rescue Alice after she has been kidnapped by a mysterious evil force.
  • Kagihime Monogatari Eikyuu Alice Rondo, an anime that focuses on the completion of a fictional sequel called The Eternal Alice.
  • Miyuki-chan in Wonderland, an anime, adapted from a manga by Clamp, is a sexy animated parody of Alice.
  • In Cardcaptor Sakura, a series by Clamp, Sakura Kinomoto dresses as Alice for an episode in which she shrinks drastically to catch The Little Card which has run loose in her house. In the third season of the animated series, while reading in the school library, Sakura is pulled into a copy of Alice in Wonderland in which her friends appear as characters in the story.
  • The George Shrinks episode "Becky in Wonderland" pays homage to the original novel.
  • A 1939 Betty Boop cartoon, Betty in Blunderland, pays homage to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland with Betty playing the role of Alice.
  • In episode 13 of the anime Ouran High School Host Club, titled "Haruhi in Wonderland"(不思議の国のハルヒ), Haruhi's dream about the day of her admission into Ouran becomes an Alice in Wonderland-esque fantasy.
  • A Detective Story from The Animatrix includes a scene in which Trinity tells the protagonist/antagonist to meet her on a train by the Six Brooks. Correspondingly, Alice as Pawn--in Chapter III of Through the Looking-Glass--moves into the Third Square by boarding a train as she jumps over one of "the six little brooks."
  • Superjail is an American animated television series produced by Augenblick Studios that is shown on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim. It shares many similarities in a disturbing kind of way. The Warden serves as the Mad Hatter running the prison in an unkempt maniacal fashion. The only prison guard is a "woman" named Alice. There are a pair of twins who create mischief on a regular basis; a reference to Tweedle-Dee and Tweedle-Dum. Jared is Superjail's uptight accountant. He has a very large head. He is always worrying about what the warden will do next to jeopardize the budget. He most likely a reference to the White Rabbit. Also one could say that Superbot could be a reference to Cheshire Cat.

Television

  • The Disney Channel series Adventures in Wonderland is based on the first book, featuring many of the major characters. Also, Alice enters Wonderland in each episode by walking through her mirror, a reference to the second book.
  • Doctor Who episode, The Five Doctors contains a reference. The Fifth Doctor quips "like Alice, I try to believe three impossible things before breakfast".
  • The television series, Alias (2001 - 2006), set amid the world of international espionage, has drawn comparison from fans and critics to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, particularly for its female protagonist dealing with themes of alternate realities and identities. Sydney Bristow, the series' central character, counts Alice as one of her favorite books.
  • An episode of Forever Knight, "Curiouser and Curiouser", features many allusions to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. These references include a toy caterpillar, a child's mobile with Dodos, and quotes from the Jabberwocky.
  • Lost (2004 - ) contains many references to the Alice world:
    • The fifth episode of the first season is entitled "White Rabbit". The rabbit in question is actually the deceased father of the protagonist, Jack Shephard. Jack sees him on the island and begins to follow him, much like Alice follows the white rabbit in the novel.
    • The finale of the third season is entitled "Through the Looking Glass".
    • A mysterious force on the island, which other survivors have deemed as a monster, can be compared to the Jabberwocky – the dark creature said to be a manifestation of Alice's innermost fears in the book.
    • An underwater station is called "The Looking Glass"; the symbol for the station is a white rabbit with what appears to be a black dot (hole).
  • The eighth season episode of Charmed entitled 'Malice in Wonderland' includes heavy references to the novel, including namesakes and a ploy by a 'white rabbit'.
  • The seventh season episode of Sabrina, the Teenage Witch entitled "Sabrina in Wonderland" heavily references Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
  • An episode of Star Trek entitled "Shore Leave" features a recreated white rabbit and Alice, brought to life by a computer which can make thoughts become reality.
  • A reference to Alice is made in the motion picture Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, in which cetacean biologist Gillian Taylor is welcomed aboard the Bounty by Admiral James T. Kirk with the words: "Hello, Alice - welcome to Wonderland!".
  • The Star Trek: Deep Space Nine third season mirror universe episode "Through the Looking Glass" took its name from the book.
  • An episode of Farscape's first season has en episode titled and inspired by Through the Looking Glass.
  • This is Wonderland (2004 - 2006), a Canadian legal drama/comedy which follows the main character Alice De Raey as she encounters characters ranging from the truly desperate to the bizarre, is partly inspired by the characters of the Alice books.
  • Big Brother 8 borrowed from Alice In Wonderland for the decoration of the house; for example, one room has only abnormally large furniture while another has abnormally small furniture.
  • An English dub of Pokémon: Diamond and Pearl used Malice in Wonderland as one of their titles.
  • An episode of the WB Show "Angel" was called "Through the Looking Glass"-in fact, a three episode Arc in which one of the main characters, Cordelia Chase, is sucked through a portal into a hell dimension, alludes to "Alice In Wonderland"-'falling' into another world and the existence of elements that don't exist in the Buffyverse normally
  • In an episode of Maggie and the Ferocious Beast, Hamilton and the Ferocious Beast set up for a tea party; they decide to wear 'funny hats' "like in that famous book with Alice and the Mad Hatter's Tea Party."
  • An episode of Gilmore Girls had Lorelai and Rory stay at an inn called The Cheshire Cat, named after the "Alice in Wonderland" character. Later in the episode, Lorelai believes the roses on the wallpaper are growing, a reference to Alice shrinking in the novel.
  • In an episode of "Arthur", Arthur has an nightmare in which his friends play the characters of Wonderland.
  • The Care Bears Adventure in Wonderland (1987) - Animated movie

Film

  • Mrs. Miniver, the classic 1942 film, includes scenes in which the title character and her husband read and quote from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland while they and their two little children stay in their home's air-raid shelter during the Nazis' World War II bombing of Britain.
  • In 1959, Walt Disney released Donald in Mathmagic Land, which was partly influenced by Alice in Wonderland.
  • Kingdom of Crooked Mirrors, a 1964 Soviet fairy tale film which is loosely based on the style of Alice in Wonderland.
  • Alice in Wonderland: A Musical Porno, a 1976 pornographic film, is based directly upon Lewis Carroll's story.
  • Alicia En La España De Las Maravillas (1978, Jorge Feliu, Spain) features four Alices wandering through 40 years of Spanish history.
  • The Last Unicorn (1982) When Schmendrick frees the unicorn from her cage at Mommy Fortuna's camp, Rukh says: "Okay, Schmendrick, I give up. Why is a raven like a writing desk?". Alice is asked the same question when attending the mad tea party.
  • Dreamchild, the 1985 Gavin Millar film, features a reporter attempting to uncover the 'true story' of the Alice tales from an 80 year-old woman who may or may not be Alice Liddle. Featuring grotesque, aged versions of the Alice characters (designed by Jim Henson's Creature shop), the film explores the relationships adults have with the fictional characters from their childhoods.
  • Labyrinth, a 1986 film directed by Jim Henson, counts the Alice books among its influences; it is the story of a young girl who must brave a strange fantasy realm populated by unusual talking creatures, in which she must solve a number of puzzles.
  • Alicia en el Pueblo de Maravillas (Cuba 1991), is a social comedy about bureaucratism.
  • Jurassic Park (1993) features a programmer who creates a program called "white rabbit" which bypasses the park's security so he can make his escape. The movie also features a character named Lewis Dodgson which is an amalgamation of Carroll's real name and pen name.
  • Dogma (1999) In the opening scene of this film, the character Loki discusses his lack of trust in organized religion with a nun. During this dialgoue, Loki references Through the Looking Glass, specifically referring to "The Walrus and the Carpenter".
  • The Matrix (1999) features a protagonist, Neo, who tags along with a gang after he sees one of them sporting a white rabbit tattoo, and his mentor, Morpheus makes reference to it. The Wachowski brothers who directed the film have stated that Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is a running theme in their Matrix trilogy.
  • Donnie Darko (2001) recasts some Carrollian elements in a darker storyline: a state of dream or nightmare, a demonic rabbit man, a (golf) hole in the ground. Donnie is also shown extending his hand through a mirror, recalling Through the Looking Glass.
  • Spirited Away (2001) contains a character who is visually similar to the Duchess character in Alice. The overall theme of the story (a little girl who finds herself in a phantasmagorical world) has many other parallels to the Carroll story, a point acknowledged by the director Hayao Miyazaki.
  • Resident Evil (2002) has several references to the stories—notably, the main character who is unnamed until the credits reveal that she is called Alice. Also, the "T-Virus" is tested on a "white rabbit"; the commandos open a mirror to reach the underground train-station; the character Rain is always checking the hours on a watch, a direct reference to the White Rabbit, and the villain is a holographic entity controlled by a computer called "the Red Queen". Additionally, the Red Queen attempts to get the main character to behead one of the other characters infected with the T-virus.
  • In the film Animatrix (2003), a short named "A Detective Story" contains references to Through the Looking Glass, such as the Jabberwocky, Red Queen and Seven Brooks.
  • What the Bleep Do We Know!? (2004) The protagonist, Amanda, played by Marlee Matlin, finds herself in a fantastic Alice in Wonderland experience when her daily, uninspired life literally begins to unravel, revealing the uncertain world of the quantum field hidden behind what we consider to be our normal, waking reality.
  • MirrorMask (2005) has obvious features borrowed from both of Carroll's books.
  • Tideland (2005) has a character, Jeliza-Rose, who is frequently reading and quoting from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland; additionally, rabbits and a rabbit hole make appearances with references to the books.
  • Pan's Labyrinth (2006) bears some similarity to Alice in its young female protagonist who enters an underground fantasy world in search of escape from the tensions of her home in 1940s Spain after the Spanish Civil War.
  • Silent Hill (2006), based on the video game of the same name, has some influence from Alice. Deborah Kara Unger, who appears in the film, said in an interview that Silent Hill was like "Alice in Wonderland meets Dante's Inferno".
  • The Last Mimzy (2007) casts the white rabbit as an integral part of a plan to save the people of the earth. It is based on "Mimsy were the Borogoves", the 1943 short story by Henry Kuttner and C. L. Moore (writing as Lewis Padgett), and which is a reference to the Jabberwocky poem which contains the phrase "all mimsy were the borogoves".

Radio

Classical music and opera

Music inspired by, referencing, or incorporating texts from the Alice books include:

Popular music

  • Jefferson Airplane's song White Rabbit mentions Alice, the Dormouse, the hookah-smoking caterpillar, the White Knight, and the Red Queen. Written by Grace Slick it shows parallels between the story and the hallucinatory effects of psychedelic drugs.
  • On Aerosmith's 2001 album, Just Push Play, the song "SUNSHINE" talks about Alice and other characters of the book. In the music video, Steven Tyler is shown trying to protect a young, blond Alice in the woods, along with depictions of the Red Queen, the White Rabbit, among others.
  • The bands Alice in Chains and Alice in Videoland. Furthermore, Alice in Chains' 2006 Tour poster depicted young Alice being hanged by the Cheshire Cat's tail.
  • The Japanese rock band alice nine released an EP with the title Alice in Wonderland in 2005.
  • The thrash metal / speed metal band Annihilator released a number of albums inspired directly and indirectly by Alice in Wonderland, the most popular being Never, Neverland and Alice in Hell.
  • Virginia Astley has released a lot of Alice-related work, including her LP From Gardens Where We Feel Secure with sound effects recorded a few miles south of where Alice's adventures began; and songs like "Tree Top Club," "Nothing Is What It Seems," and "Over the Edge of the World".
  • The Beatles counted the Alice books among their many artistic influences, and this is referred to in various oblique ways. Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band features a sleeve montage designed by Peter Blake that includes an image of Lewis Carroll. Other Beatles songs with Carrollian imagery include "Cry Baby Cry," "Come Together," "Glass Onion," and "I Am The Walrus"—supposedly this walrus is the one from The Walrus and the Carpenter. The song "Helter Skelter" contains lyrics similar to some in "The Lobster Quadrille" in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
  • DJ Yoji Biomehanika has a song named "Wonderland"
  • DJ Fresh has a song named "The Looking Glass" which features Jeremy Beadle reading an excerpt and the sound of breaking glass at the end.
  • Blue Man Group's cover of the Jefferson Airplane song, "White Rabbit"
  • The indie rock band Bright Eyes, on the album Digital Ash in a Digital Urn, has a song named "Down in a Rabbit Hole," which uses the phrase to describe the effects of drug abuse.
  • The power metal band Blind Guardian released a 2004 DVD titled Imaginations Through the Looking Glass, and the lyrics to their song "Imaginations from the Other Side" include: "where's the wonderland / which young Alice had seen / or was it just a dream / I knew the answers / now they're lost for me".
  • The popular Japanese band Buck-Tick released a song on 8-8-2007 entitled "Alice in Wonder-Underground". The PV includes a very macabre depiction of the story, with Alice chasing her rabbit, the band periodically becoming rabbits, and the lead vocalist Atsushi Sakurai dressed as the Mad Hatter.* .
  • Cradle of Filth's song, "Malice Through The Looking Glass"
  • The Crüxshadows have a spoken segment on their EP, Tears, which is titled "Jabberwocky".
  • Dokken made strong reference to the mad hatter and his rabbit friends in their song "Maddest Hatter" from their 1999 album, "Erase the Slate".
  • Donovan used some of Carroll's lyrics on his 1971 album, HMS Donovan.
  • The Erasure video for "Breath of Life" from the album Chorus has imagery from Through the Looking Glass and Andy Bell has stated in an interview that the song was inspired by Alice in Wonderland.
  • The first album by UK synth-pop duo Erasure was entitled Wonderland.
  • Forgive Durden's album Wonderland is heavily influenced by both Alice books.
  • Canadian Rock Musician Matthew Good's song "Failing The Rorschach Test" references Alice and a rabbit many times in the song by saying "Hey rabbit" and "Hey Alice".
  • GWAR has a longform video entitled Phallus in Wonderland.
  • Peter Hammill's album Over contains the song "Alice (Letting Go)", which has no connection to Carroll's Alice and which is about a lover of the same name who left him. However, there is another song on this album, "This Side of the Looking Glass", which plays with the title of the second "Alice" book and the lost lover's name.
  • Words and images from the Alice books acquire blatant psychedelic connotations in "White Rabbit" by Jefferson Airplane from their 1967 album Surrealistic Pillow. The song's lyrics refer to pills that make you larger or smaller, for example.
  • Jewel released an album and single with the title Goodbye Alice in Wonderland.
  • Marilyn Manson's 2007 album is titled Eat Me, Drink Me, possibly referring to Alice in Wonderland as his new music and film works are stated as heavily influenced by Lewis Carroll among other things.
  • "Alice" by Lisa Mitchell
  • Stevie Nicks has a song titled "Alice" on her 1989 album The Other Side of the Mirror. Its lyrics mention Alice and the Mad Hatter.
  • Neil Sedaka took Alice into the US Top 50 in 1963 with the single "Alice In Wonderland".
  • The video for the Tom Petty song "Don't Come Around Here No More" portrays Alice, the Mad Hatter, and other Wonderland elements. Producer Dave Stewart appears as the Caterpillar.
  • The Red Paintings's song "The Streets Fell Into My Window" quotes from the original novel.
  • Donna Summer, has a song from the 1980s called "The Wanderer", in which she states "Alice went to wonderland but I stayed home instead".
  • Symphony X's 1998 release, Twilight in Olympus, contains "Through the Looking Glass" – a 13-minute epic about the book.
  • The Thompson Twins released an instrumental track called "The Lewis Carol".
  • Japanese singer Tommy february6's PV for "Bloomin'"
  • Traffic recorded a song called "House For Everyone" which has references to Alice in Wonderland.
  • Red Queen by Funker Vogt makes direct references to The Looking Glass, Alice and the Red Queen.
  • Tom Waits released an 2002 album entitled Alice, consisting of songs that were written for a stage adaptation of Alice.
  • "Rabbit Hole" by Year of the Rabbit
  • "I've Seen All Good People: Your Move" by Yes mentions the White Queen.
  • Marcy Playground's song "Sherry Fraser" contains the lyrics "the mad hatter he waited for Alice to come to tea again"
  • There was a rash of Alice-related material in the music industry in the 1980s, a fad mainly fueled by goth and indie rock musicians. Siouxsie & the Banshees, for instance, named their label Wonderland and released an album called Through The Looking Glass. The former London-based Batcave Club was renamed "Alice In Wonderland." The Sisters of Mercy had a hit single, "Alice," about the image of Carroll's heroine, which in turn led to a story called "Alice In The Floodlands".
  • Hard rock bands have used ideas from Alice In Wonderland, usually with a sense of parody. Both Nazareth and Paice Ashton & Lord released albums called Malice In Wonderland – the latter using one of Peter Blake's paintings for the sleeve.
  • Panic at the Disco's 2008 album, Pretty. Odd., features a song called "Mad as Rabbits", which lyricist Ryan Ross attributed to the book in an interview.
  • The Gwen Stefani video for "What You Waiting For?" from the album Love. Angel. Music. Baby. has imagery from Alice In Wonderland. Stefani portrays several characters from the books, including Alice, the White Queen and the Red Queen.
  • The indie rock band Noisettes has a song named "Malice In Wonderland".
  • The debut album Alice's Inferno by Spanish Gothic metal band Forever Slave is a concept album focusing on Alice's life after her parents' death.
  • "Still Doll" by Kanon Wakeshima, the ending theme of Vampire Knight, contains references to Alice in Wonderland. "Hi, Miss Alice. With glass eyes, what kind of a dream ere you able to have?" (Rough English translation)
  • Filk song "The Girl That's Never Been" by Michelle Dockery/Escape Key is obviously about it, the main character being named Alice, a picture of Dinah, the Chesire's fading grin, and is based off a short story caled "The Chesire" by Bill Kte'pi
  • The band Hypnogaja has a song titled "Looking Glass" which references Alice, the white rabbit, the Red Queen, and many other elements of the story.
  • The music clip Labyrinth by OOMPH! references many Alice memes, such as a liquid filled bottle labeled "Trink mich" ("drink me"), the Mad Hatter, a white rabbit and the Queen of Hearts.
  • The goth/industrial band, The Birthday Massacre, has an EP titled "Looking Glass".

Computer and video games

  • Namco's Japan-only 1988 arcade game Marchen Maze is loosely based on the Alice in Wonderland story.
  • Jazz Jackrabbit 2 includes a level based on Wonderland, featuring the Cheshire cat and an opiate smoking Caterpillar.
  • The Super Mushroom powerup, used to change size in the Super Mario Bros. games, was inspired by Alice in Wonderland. Also, Super Mario must also hop into pipes to fall into a new world called the Underworld in the series, as Alice hops in the rabbit hole to fall into Wonderland at the beginning of the tale.
  • In the 2000 video game The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask, the way the game's hero reaches the parallel world, in which the game is set, is reminiscent of Alice in Wonderland.
  • Wonderland (1990), an illustrated text adventure by Magnetic Scrolls.
  • In the Bloody Roar series of fighting games, one of the main protagonists is a young Eurasian woman dressed in blue and white and called Alice, and whose zoanthropic transform is a white rabbit.
  • American McGee's Alice is a macabre computer game which chronologically takes place following the two Alice books.
  • The Thief series, developed by Looking Glass Studios, contains references to the Alice world. Thief: The Dark Project has an early level that involves breaking into a huge mansion; as one goes deeper inside, it becomes "curiouser and curiouser" — resembling Alice more and more. Thief: Gold features an additional section to the mansion, known as "Little Big World" to fans, that involves first passing through a very small village and emerging in a gigantic kitchen.
  • The RPG Kingdom Hearts includes Alice as a plot character. Also, Disney's version of Wonderland appears as one of the first worlds.
  • The Silent Hill series contain a few references of Wonderland, in an homage to its surreal world. The best example of this is in the first game, where a door puzzle at the Alchemilla Hospital involves coloured blocks imprinted with the Cheshire Cat, Mad Hatter, Mock Turtle and The Queen of Hearts.
  • Windham Classics' Alice In Wonderland adventure game for the Commodore 64.
  • In one stage of Rockstar's Manhunt, the player is required to chase a man in a white rabbit costume through a prison complex.
  • In the PC-98 game Mystic Square of the Touhou Project, one of the boss characters is named Alice. She is inspired by the story: the background music for the Extra Stage where she appears again is titled "Alice in Wonderland", and playing cards appear as enemies; the mid-boss is a King card soldier. Alice later returns in Perfect Cherry Blossom and other games of the series.
  • In the hentai game Angie in Decadence Land, the player controls two girls who have to perform adult challenges in a world based on the Wonderland concept.
  • In Square Enix's Grandia III for the PlayStation 2, a group of crab-like enemies use an ability called "Lobster Quadrille" – a reference to Chapter 10 of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
  • In the Shin Megami Tensei series, the demon Alice had her design based on Alice from Alice in Wonderland

Other games

External links

Notes

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