Any member of the Jewish community, or their descendants, who lived in Spain and Portugal from the Middle Ages until their expulsion in the late 15th century. They fled first to North Africa and other parts of the Ottoman Empire and eventually settled in countries such as France, Holland, England, Italy, and the Balkan states. They differ from the Ashkenazi Jews in their traditional language, Ladino, and in their preservation of Babylonian rather than Palestinian Jewish ritual traditions. Many now live in Israel.
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