Pasteur

Pasteur

[pa-stur; Fr. pah-stœr]
Pasteur, Louis, 1822-95, French chemist. He taught at Dijon, Strasbourg, and Lille, and in Paris at the École normale supérieure and the Sorbonne (1867-89). His early research consisted of chemical studies of the tartrates, in which he discovered (1848) molecular dissymmetry. He then began work on fermentation, which had important results. His experiments with bacteria conclusively disproved (1862) the theory of spontaneous generation and led to the germ theory of infection. His work on wine, vinegar, and beer resulted in the development of the process of pasteurization. Of great economic value also was his solution for the control of silkworm disease, his study of chicken cholera, and his technique of vaccination against anthrax, which was successfully administered against rabies in 1885. In 1888 the Pasteur Institute was founded in Paris, with Pasteur as its director, to continue work on rabies and to provide a teaching and research center on virulent and contagious diseases.

See biographies by his son-in-law, René Vallery-Radot (1920, repr. 1960); R. J. Dubos, Louis Pasteur: Free Lance of Science (1986) and Pasteur and Modern Science (rev. ed. 1988).

(born Dec. 27, 1822, Dole, France—died Sept. 28, 1895, Saint-Cloud, near Paris) French chemist and microbiologist. Early in his career, after studies at the École Normale Supérieure, he researched the effects of polarized light on chemical compounds. In 1857 he became director of scientific studies at the École. His studies of fermentation of alcohol and milk (souring) showed that yeast could reproduce without free oxygen (the Pasteur effect); he deduced that fermentation and food spoilage were due to the activity of microorganisms and could be prevented by excluding or destroying them. His work overturned the concept of spontaneous generation (life arising from nonliving matter) and led to heat pasteurization, allowing vinegar, wine, and beer to be produced and transported without spoiling. He saved the French silk industry by his work on silkworm diseases. In 1881 he perfected a way to isolate and weaken germs, and he went on to develop vaccines against anthrax in sheep and cholera in chickens, following Edward Jenner's example. He turned his attention to researching rabies, and in 1885 his inoculating with a weakened virus saved the life of a boy bitten by a rabid dog. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute for rabies research, prevention, and treatment.

Learn more about Pasteur, Louis with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 27, 1822, Dole, France—died Sept. 28, 1895, Saint-Cloud, near Paris) French chemist and microbiologist. Early in his career, after studies at the École Normale Supérieure, he researched the effects of polarized light on chemical compounds. In 1857 he became director of scientific studies at the École. His studies of fermentation of alcohol and milk (souring) showed that yeast could reproduce without free oxygen (the Pasteur effect); he deduced that fermentation and food spoilage were due to the activity of microorganisms and could be prevented by excluding or destroying them. His work overturned the concept of spontaneous generation (life arising from nonliving matter) and led to heat pasteurization, allowing vinegar, wine, and beer to be produced and transported without spoiling. He saved the French silk industry by his work on silkworm diseases. In 1881 he perfected a way to isolate and weaken germs, and he went on to develop vaccines against anthrax in sheep and cholera in chickens, following Edward Jenner's example. He turned his attention to researching rabies, and in 1885 his inoculating with a weakened virus saved the life of a boy bitten by a rabid dog. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute for rabies research, prevention, and treatment.

Learn more about Pasteur, Louis with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Pasteur's day gecko (Phelsuma v-nigra pasteuri Meier, 1984 (syn.Phelsuma pasteuri Meirte, 1999)) is a small diurnal subspecies of geckos. It lives in the Comoros and typically inhabits trees and bushes. Pasteur's day gecko feeds on insects and nectar.

Description

This lizard belongs to the smallest day geckos. It can reach a maximum length of approximately 11 cm. The body colour is bright green. The tail may be bright blue. There is a red v-shaped stripe on the snout and a red bar between the eyes. On the back there often are a number of small red-brick coloured dots. Typical is the turquoise blue patch in the neck region, which may be segmented by a small red dorsal stripe. A yellow ring around the eye is present. This subspecies doesn't have the typical v-shaped marking on the throat The ventral side is yellowish.

Distribution

This subspecies only inhabits the island Mayotte in the Comoros.

Habitat

Phelsuma v-nigra pasteuri is found on bushes and trees along streams.

Diet

These day geckos feed on various insects and other invertebrates. They also like to lick soft, sweet fruit, pollen and nectar.

Care and maintenance in captivity

These animals should be housed in pairs and need a medium sized, well planted terrarium. The daytime temperature should be between 28 and 30°C and 24 and 26°C at night. The humidity should be not too high. A two month winter cooldown should be included during which temperature is 25°C at daytime and 20°C at night. In captivity, these animals can be fed with crickets, wax moth larvae, fruit flies, mealworms and houseflies.

References

  1. Henkel, F.-W. and W. Schmidt (1995) Amphibien und Reptilien Madagaskars, der Maskarenen, Seychellen und Komoren. Ulmer Stuttgart. ISBN 3-8001-7323-9
  2. McKeown, Sean (1993) The general care and maintenance of day geckos. Advanced Vivarium Systems, Lakeside CA.
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