A color solid is a three-dimensional representation of the color space, an analog of the two-dimensional color wheel. The added spatial dimension allows a color solid to depict an added dimension of color variation. Whereas a two-dimensional color wheel typically depicts the variables of hue (red, green, blue, etc.) and brightness (gradations of light and dark), a color solid adds the variable of saturation, allowing the sphere to depict every conceivable color in an organized three-dimensional structure.
Different color theorists have each designed unique color solids. Many are in the shape of a true sphere, whereas others are warped three-dimensional ellipsoid figures, these variations being designed to express some aspect of the relationship of the colors more clearly. The color spheres conceived by Phillip Otto Runge and Johannes Itten are typical examples and prototypes for many other color solid schematics. The models of Runge and Itten are basically identical, and form the basis for the description below.
Pure, saturated hues of equal brightness are located around the equator at the periphery of the color sphere. As in the color wheel, contrasting (or complementary) hues are located opposite each other. Moving toward the center of the color sphere on the equatorial plane, colors become less and less saturated, until all colors meet at the central axis as a neutral gray. Moving vertically in the color sphere, colors become lighter (toward the top) and darker (toward the bottom.) At the upper pole, all hues meet in white; at the bottom pole, all hues meet in black.
The vertical axis of the color sphere, then, is gray all along its length, varying from black at the bottom to white at the top. All pure (saturated) hues are located on the surface of the sphere, varying from light to dark down the color sphere. All impure (unsaturated hues, created by mixing contrasting colors) comprise the sphere's interior, likewise varying in brightness from top to bottom.
Artists and art critics find the color solid to be a useful means of organizing the three variables of color (hue, brightness, and saturation) in a single schematic, using it as an aid in the composition and analysis of visual art.
The Munsell color solid is useful in developing DirectX personal-computer graphics.
US Patent Issued to Sharp on Sept. 25 for "Colored Microlens Array and Manufacturing Method for Colored Microlens Array, Color Solid-State Image Capturing Device and Manufacturing Method for Color Solid-State Image Capturing Device, Color Display Apparatus and Manufacturing Method for Color Display Apparatus, and Electronic Information Device" (Japanese Inventor)
Sep 29, 2012; ALEXANDRIA, Va., Sept. 29 -- United States Patent no. 8,274,031, issued on Sept. 25, was assigned to Sharp K. K. (Osaka, Japan)....
US Patent Issued to Sharp on March 13 for "Color Solid-State Image Capturing Apparatus and Electronic Information Device" (Japanese Inventor)
Mar 20, 2012; ALEXANDRIA, Va., March 20 -- United States Patent no. 8,134,633, issued on March 13, was assigned to Sharp K. K. (Osaka, Japan)....
Patent No. 7,742,088 Issued on June 22, Assigned to Fujifilm for Color Solid-state Image Pickup Device (Japanese Inventor)
Jun 23, 2010; ALEXANDRIA, Va., June 25 -- Makoto Shizukuishi, Miyagi, Japan, has developed a color solid-state image pickup device. The...