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A collision is an isolated event in which two or more bodies (colliding bodies) exert relatively strong forces on each other for a relatively short time.
## Dynamics

## Billiards

In billiards, collisions play an important role. Because the collisions between billiard balls are nearly elastic, and the balls roll on a surface that produces low-rolling friction, their behavior is often used to illustrate Newton's laws of motion. After a low-friction collision of a moving ball with a stationary one of equal mass, the angle between the directions of the two balls is 90 degrees. This appears to be an important fact that many professional billiard players take into account.## Traffic

In traffic such a collision can be between two vehicles, a vehicle and a person, a vehicle and an object, two persons or a person and an object (and more if an animal is involved). It is an accident or even a disaster. At level crossings sometimes a train collides with a vehicle or person. Due to the velocity and mass of a train it needs a long distance to stop, typically longer than the train driver can see ahead. When a train collides with a car this is more likely to be deadly for the people in the car than for those in the train, because the train has more mass and momentum.
## Attack

Types of attack by means of a deliberate collision include:## See also

## External links

Collisions involve forces (there is a change in velocity). Collisions can be elastic, meaning they conserve energy and momentum, inelastic, meaning they conserve momentum but not energy, or totally inelastic (or plastic), meaning they conserve momentum and the two objects stick together.

The magnitude of the velocity difference at impact is called the closing speed.

The field of dynamics is concerned with moving and colliding objects.

Consider an elastic collision in 2 dimensions of any 2 masses m_{1} and m_{2}, with respective initial velocities v_{1} in the x-direction, and v_{2} = 0, and final velocities V_{1} and V_{2}.

Conservation of momentum: m_{1}v_{1} = m_{1}V_{1}+m_{2}V_{2}.

Conservation of energy for elastic collision: 1/2m_{1}|v_{1}|^{2} = 1/2m_{1}|V_{1}|^{2}+1/2m_{2}|V_{2}|^{2}

Now consider the case m_{1} = m_{2}, we then obtain v_{1}=V_{1}+V_{2} and |v_{1}|^{2} = |V_{1}|^{2}+|V_{2}|^{2}

Using the dot product, |v_{1}|^{2} = v_{1}•v_{1} = |V_{1}|^{2}+|V_{2}|^{2}+2V_{1}•V_{2}

So V_{1}•V_{2} = 0, so they are perpendicular.

- with the body: unarmed striking, punching, kicking, martial arts, pugilism
- striking directly with a weapon, such as a sword, club or axe
- ramming with an object or vehicle, e.g.:
- a car deliberately crashing into a building to break into it
- a plane deliberately crashing into a building to cause destruction

An attacking collision with a distant object can be achieved by throwing or launching a projectile.

- Coefficient of restitution
- Collision detection
- Collision (telecommunications)
- Car accident
- Elastic collision
- Inelastic collision
- Mid-air collision
- Friction
- Projectile
- Space debris
- Impact event
- Impact crater
- Kinetic theory - collisions between molecules

- Three Dimensional Collision - Oblique inelastic collision between two homogeneous spheres.
- Two Dimensional Collision - Java applet that simulates elastic collisions.
- One Dimensional Collision - One Dimensional Collision Flash Applet.
- Two Dimensional Collision - Two Dimensional Collision Flash Applet.

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Last updated on Friday October 10, 2008 at 08:44:31 PDT (GMT -0700)

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Last updated on Friday October 10, 2008 at 08:44:31 PDT (GMT -0700)

View this article at Wikipedia.org - Edit this article at Wikipedia.org - Donate to the Wikimedia Foundation

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