collective farm

Russian kolkhoz.

In the former Soviet Union, a cooperative agricultural enterprise operated on state-owned land. Under the policy of collectivization, which was pursued most intensively by Joseph Stalin in 1929–33, peasants were forced to give up their individual farms and join large collective farms. They objected violently and in many cases slaughtered their livestock and destroyed their equipment before joining. By 1936 almost all the peasantry had been collectivized, though millions had also been deported to prison camps. With the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1990–91, the collective farms began to be privatized.

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Process of negotiation between representatives of workers (usually labour union officials) and management to determine the conditions of employment. The agreement reached may cover not only wages but hiring practices, layoffs, promotions, working conditions and hours, and benefit programs. Collective bargaining developed in England at the end of the 18th century. Although collective bargaining agreements are common in many countries, they are more scarce in developing countries that have large pools of surplus labour. Contract negotiations may occur at the national, regional, or local level, depending on the structure of industry within a country. Seealso labour union; strike.

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A collective is a group of people who share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together on a specific project(s) to achieve a common objective. Collectives are also characterised by attempts to share and exercise political and social power and to make decisions on a consensus-driven and egalitarian basis. Collectives differ from cooperatives in that they are not necessarily focused upon an economic benefit or saving (but can be that as well).

A commune or intentional community, which may also be known as a "collective household", is a group of people who live together in some kind of dwelling or residence, or in some other arrangement (eg. sharing land). Collective households may be organized for a specific purpose (eg. relating to business, parenting, or some other shared interest).

Collective consciousness is a term created by French social theorist Émile Durkheim that describes how an entire community comes together to share similar values.

The term collective is sometimes used to describe a species as a whole, for example the human collective.

Types of collectives

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