, can describe the treason
with enemy forces occupying
. As such it implies criminal
deeds in the service of the occupying power
, including complicity
with the occupying power in murder
, and economic exploitation
as well as participation in a puppet government
In France, a distinction emerged between 'collaborators' and 'collaborationists'. The latter expression is mainly used to describe individuals enrolled in pseudo-Nazi parties, often based in Paris, who had an overwhelming belief in fascist ideology. 'Collaborators', on the other hand, could engage in collaboration for a number of more pragmatic reasons, such as damage limitation or personal ambition, and were not necessarily believers in fascism per se. Arch-collaborators like Pierre Laval or René Bousquet are thus distinct from collaborationists.
Recent research by the British historian, Simon Kitson, has shown that France did not wait until the Liberation to begin pursuing collaborationists. The Vichy government, itself heavily engaged in collaboration, arrested around 2000 individuals on charges of passing information to the Germans. Their reasons for doing so was to centralise collaboration to ensure that the state maintained a monopoly in Franco-German relations and to defend sovereignty so that France may negotiate from a position of strength. As Kitson has shown, the government engaged in many compromises along the way.
The term in this negative meaning is also used for German individuals and institutions cooperating with the Nazi regime, though in their case it was not a foreign occupation, and later to people cooperating with or helping other dictatorial regimes in their own countries, even when foreign occupation was not involved.
The term collaborate dates from 1871, and is a back-formation from collaborator (1802), from the French collaborateur
as used during the Napoleonic Wars
against smugglers trading with England and assisting escape of monarchists, and is itself derived from the Latin collaboratus
, pp. of collaborare
"work with", from com
- "with" + labore
"to work." Collaboration as "traitorous cooperation with the enemy dates from 1940, originally in reference to the Vichy Government of France and those who cooperated with or helped the Nazi Germany
following the Battle of France
History of criminal collaboration
In France, a distinction emerged between the collaborateur
and 'collaborationists'. The latter expression is mainly used to describe individuals enrolled in pseudo-Nazi parties, often based in Paris, who had an overwhelming belief in fascist ideology. Collaborateur
, on the other hand, could engage in collaboration for a number of more pragmatic reasons, such as preventing infrastructure damage for use by the occupation forces or personal ambition, and were not necessarily believers in fascism per se. Arch-collaborators like Pierre Laval
or René Bousquet
are thus distinct from collaborationists.
- Paul Webster, Petain's Crime: The Complete Story of French Collaboration in the Holocaust, Ivan R. Dee, 1999 ISBN 1566632498
- The Oxford English Dictionary, vol.3, Oxford University Press.
- Henry L. Wilson, When Collaboration becomes Plagiarism: The Administrative perspective, in Lise Buranen, Andrea A. Lunsford, Alice Myers Roy, Perspectives on Plagiarism and Intellectual Property in a Postmodern World, SUNY Press, 1999 ISBN 0791440796
- David Littlejohn, 1972. The Patriotic Traitors: A History of Collaboration in German-Occupied Europe, 1940-45, William Heinemann Ltd., London), ISBN 043442725X
- Simon Kitson, The Hunt for Nazi Spies, Fighting espionage in Vichy France, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2008. (translation from French, Vichy et la chasse aux espions nazis, Paris, Autrement, 2005.)