cognitive

cognitive dissonance

Mental conflict that occurs when beliefs or assumptions are contradicted by new information. The concept was introduced by the psychologist Leon Festinger (1919–89) in the late 1950s. He and later researchers showed that, when confronted with challenging new information, most people seek to preserve their current understanding of the world by rejecting, explaining away, or avoiding the new information or by convincing themselves that no conflict really exists. Cognitive dissonance is nonetheless considered an explanation for attitude change.

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Perspective in theory of cognition is the choice of a context or a reference (or the result of this choice) from which to sense, categorize, measure or codify experience, cohesively forming a coherent belief, typically for comparing with another. One may further recognize a number of subtly distinctive meanings, close to those of paradigm, point of view, reality tunnel, umwelt, or weltanschauung.

To choose a perspective is to choose a value system and, unavoidably, an associated belief system. When we look at a business perspective, we are looking at a monetary base values system and beliefs. When we look at a human perspective, it is a more social value system and its associated beliefs.

Point of view

Cognitive perspective refers to the aspect being looked from. It differs from the narrative point of view. If you are talking from your point of view, you would talk about what you want, need or feel like. To get a person to do something, it is much better to talk from the other person's point of view. That includes talking about what is in it for the other person. Talking about it in terms of what is good for the other person and what they will get in return, while afterwards talking about what you want the person to do.

In social psychology you would talk in terms of the other person's point of view when soliciting or motivating the other person to do something for you. Being able to see the other person's point of view is one of Henry Fords advice towards being successful in business. "If there is any one secret of success, it lies in the ability to get the other person's point of view and see things from that person's angle as well as from your own".

In conflict resolution a technique of using "I", "me", "my" language encourages the person to talk from their own point of view. This helps to get the antagonist to better understand the speakers feelings, needs, experiences circumventing the need for discussion. Talking about your own point of view brings it up on the other person to be more understanding and cooperative. Since it takes effort to see the situation from another persons point of view, the opponent is disarmed unless they are willing to put in the extra effort or are sincerely interested in being helpful. This is the opposite of solicitation because in soliciting the speaker is the one offering their services.

Perspection, a related concept, signifies the ability to auto-inspect one's perception, or perceiving an individual's inspection.

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