black codes

Laws, enacted in the former Confederate states after the American Civil War, that restricted the freedom of former slaves and were designed to assure white supremacy. They originated in the slave codes, which defined slaves as property. In some states these codes included vagrancy laws that targeted unemployed blacks, apprentice laws that made black orphans and dependents available for hire to whites, and commercial laws that excluded blacks from certain trades and businesses and restricted their ownership of property. Northern reaction to the laws helped produce Radical Reconstruction and passage of the 14th and 15th amendments to the Constitution, as well as creation of the Freedmen's Bureau. Many provisions of the black codes were reenacted in the Jim Crow laws and remained in force until the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

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Codes, Ciphers and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication is a cryptography book by Fred B. Wrixon. Its subtitle is "Making and breaking secret messages. From hieroglyphs to the internet." The book is long at 704 pages. It discusses many different types of codes such as Wigwag, which is a signalling technique that uses flags, disks or lanterns.

Current edition

  • 1579120407 Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 1998.

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