There are three varieties of cocktail shakers:
The cocktail shaker can be traced to 7000 BCE in South America, where the jar gourd was used as a closed container. Egyptians as long ago as 3500 BCE were adding spices to their fermented grain concoctions before serving, to make them more palatable. In 1520, Cortez wrote to King Charles V of Spain of a drink made from cacao, served frothy and foaming from a golden cylinder.
By the late 1800s, the cocktail shaker as we now know it was in wide use, invented by an innkeeper who, while using two containers to pour drinks back and forth between, noticed that one container's mouth was smaller than the other's and held the two together and shook them "for a bit of a show".
During the 1920s prohibition era in the United States, cocktail shakers were produced in many different shapes and designs, including shakers that looked like penguins, zeppelins, lighthouses and airplanes. Cocktail shaker skills and drink rituals became as important in the Jazz Age lifestyle as knowing the latest dance step. It was after prohibition however, that cocktail shakers really reached their zenith of popularity. They appeared in movies, and were associated with the glamorous lives of movie stars. Cocktail shakers became de rigueur symbols of sophistication and symbols of the good life.
On December 7, 1941, the era of the cocktail shaker faltered seriously, as the United States entered World War II and all non-essential uses of metal were redirected towards the war effort. The same companies and equipment formerly used to manufacture cocktail shakers were used to make artillery shells and other war materials.
In the early 1950s cocktail shakers enjoyed a brief resurgence as soldiers familiar with them returned and became part of the housing boom featuring 'rec rooms' with bars. By the later part of the decade though, shakers were quickly giving way to modern electric appliances that either added a mixing unit to the shaker's lid or did away with the shaker entirely, with the introduction of the electric blender.
By the mid 1860s, the use of a pair of tumblers to mix drinks was common practice. The patent history involves improvements on this practice:
December 24, 1872 --- #134,274 by William Harnett of Brooklyn, New York --- Apparatus for mixing 6 drinks at once (six shakers on a turntable)
February 1, 1881 --- #237,150 by L. H. Williams --- mixer with leak-proof edge flaring
August 29, 1882 --- #263,394 by A. Eggers --- combination shaker which allowed the addition of a tumbler if desired
January 30, 1883 --- #271,350 --- W. H. Murphy --- mixed beverage shaker which included a spring-loaded strainer
June 24, 1884 --- #300,867 --- E. J. Hauck --- the first 3-piece cocktail shaker with a built-in strainer, just as is used today. This design also included an air-vent to allow for faster pouring.
October 30, 1877 --- #196,605 --- W. H. Trepus --- air-vented from the bottom
September 30, 1924 --- #1,509,981 --- Louis W. Rice --- fluted dome interior feature which could be used as a juicer called a "beverage shaker" instead of "cocktail shaker".
April 7, 1925 --- #1,532,681 --- G. S. Bryce --- 3-piece glass shaker with cork, a metal stopper, strainer and metal pouring insert. This was the standard design for the 1920's.
Bergman, Andrew We're In The Money. Depression America and It's Films. New York University Press, 1971
Gaylesworth, Thomas & Laylesworth, Virginia New York, The Glamour Years 1919 - 1945 NY Gallery Books, 1987
Grimes, William Straight Up or On The Rocks, A Cultural History of American Drink NY Simon & Schuster, 1993
Lifshey, Earl Housewares Story, The, A History of the American Housewares Industry National Manufactures Association, 1973
Madden, Ethan That Jazz! An Idosyncratic Social History of The American Twenties NY G.P. Putnam's Sons
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