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In mathematics, Sierpiński space (or the connected two-point set) is a finite topological space with two points, only one of which is closed.
It is the smallest example of a topological space which is neither trivial nor discrete. It is named after Wacław Sierpiński.## Definition and fundamental properties

## Topological properties

### Separation

### Connectedness

### Compactness

### Convergence

### Metrizability

### Other properties

## Continuous functions to the Sierpiński space

^{X} is in bijective correspondence with P(X), the power set of X. Every subset U of X has its characteristic function χ_{U} and every function from X to {0,1} is of this form._{U} is continuous if and only if U is open in X. Let C(X,S) denote the set of all continuous maps from X to S and let T(X) denote the topology of X (i.e. the family of all open sets). Then we have a bijection from T(X) to C(X,S) which sends the open set U to χ_{U}.
^{X} with P(X), the subset of continuous maps C(X,S) ⊂ 2^{X} is precisely the topology of X: T(X) ⊂ P(X).
### Categorical description

### The initial topology

_{0} spaces are T_{0}, it follows that a topological space is T_{0} if and only if it is homeomorphic to a subspace of a power of S.
## In algebraic geometry

## See also

## Notes

## References

The Sierpiński space has important relations to the theory of computation and semantics.

Explicitly, the Sierpiński space is a topological space S whose underlying point set is {0,1} and whose open sets are

- $\{varnothing,\{1\},\{0,1\}\}.$

- $\{varnothing,\{0\},\{0,1\}\}.$

The closure operator on S is determined by

- $overline\{\{0\}\}\; =\; \{0\},qquadoverline\{\{1\}\}\; =\; \{0,1\}.$

A finite topological space is also uniquely determined by its specialization preorder. For the Sierpiński space this preorder is actually a partial order and given by

- $0leq\; 0,qquad\; 0leq\; 1,qquad\; 1leq\; 1.$

The Sierpiński space S is a special case of both the finite particular point topology (with particular point 1) and the finite excluded point topology (with excluded point 0). Therefore S has many properties in common with one or both of these families.

- The points 0 and 1 are topologically distinguishable in S since {1} is an open set which contains only one of these points. Therefore S is a Kolmogorov (T
_{0}) space. - However, S is not T
_{1}since the point 1 is not closed. It follows that S is not Hausdorff, or T_{n}for any n ≥ 1. - S is not regular (or completely regular) since the point 1 and the disjoint closed set {0} cannot be separated by neighborhoods. (Also regularity in the presence of T
_{0}would imply Hausdorff). - S is vacuously normal and completely normal since there are no nonempty separated sets.
- S is not perfectly normal since the disjoint closed sets ∅ and {0} cannot be precisely separated by a function. Indeed {0} cannot be the zero set of any continuous function S → R since every such function is constant.

- The Sierpiński space S is both hyperconnected (since every nonempty open set contains 1) and ultraconnected (since every nonempty closed set contains 0).
- It follows that S is both connected and path connected.
- A path from 0 to 1 in S is given by the function: f(0) = 0 and f(t) = 1 for t > 0. The function f : I → S is continuous since f
^{−1}(1) = (0,1] which is open in I. - Like all finite topological spaces, S is locally path connected.
- The Sierpiński space is contractible, so the fundamental group of S is trivial (as are all the higher homotopy groups).

- Like all finite topological spaces, the Sierpiński space is both compact and second-countable.
- The compact subset {1} of S is not closed showing that compact subsets of T
_{0}spaces need not be closed. - Every open cover of S must contain S itself since S is the only open neighborhood of 0. Therefore every open cover of S has at open subcover consisting of a single set: {S}.
- It follows that S is fully normal.

- Every sequence in S converges to the point 0. This is because the only neighborhood of 0 is S itself.
- A sequence in S converges to 1 if and only if the sequence contains only finitely many terms equal to 0 (i.e. the sequence is eventually just 1's).
- The point 1 is a cluster point of a sequence in S if and only if the sequence contains infinitely many 1's.
- Examples:
- 1 is not a cluster point of (0,0,0,0,…).
- 1 is a cluster point (but not a limit) of (0,1,0,1,0,1,…).
- The sequence (1,1,1,1,…) converges to both 0 and 1.

- The Sierpiński space S is not metrizable or even pseudometrizable since it is not regular.
- S is generated by the hemimetric (or pseudo-quasimetric) $d(0,1)=0$ and $d(1,0)=1$.

- There are only three continuous maps from S to itself: the identity map and the constant maps to 0 and 1.
- It follows that the homeomorphism group of S is trivial.

Let X be an arbitrary set. The set of all functions from X to the set {0,1} is typically denoted 2^{X}. These functions are precisely the characteristic functions of X. Each such function is of the form

- $chi\_U(x)\; =\; begin\{cases\}1\; \&\; x\; in\; U\; 0\; \&\; x\; notin\; Uend\{cases\}$

Now suppose X is a topological space and let {0,1} have the Sierpiński topology. Then a function χ_{U} : X → S is continuous if and only if χ_{U}^{−1}(1) is open in X. But, by definition

- $chi\_U^\{-1\}(1)\; =\; U.$

- $C(X,S)cong\; mathcal\{T\}(X)$

The above construction can be described nicely using the language of category theory. There is contravariant functor T : Top → Set from the category of topological spaces to the category of sets which assigns each topological space X its set of open sets T(X) and each continuous function f : X → Y the preimage map

- $f^\{-1\}\; :\; mathcal\{T\}(Y)\; to\; mathcal\{T\}(X).$

Any topological space X has the initial topology induced by the family C(X,S) of continuous functions to Sierpiński space. Indeed, in order to coarsen the topology on X one must remove open sets. But removing the open set U would render χ_{U} discontinuous. So X has the coarsest topology for which each function in C(X,S) is continuous.

The family of functions C(X,S) separates points in X if and only if X is a T_{0} space. Two points x and y will be separated by the function χ_{U} if and only if the open set U contains precisely one of the two points. This is exactly what it means for x and y to be topologically distinguishable.

Therefore if X is T_{0}, we can embed X as a subspace of a product of Sierpiński spaces, where there is one copy of S for each open set U in X. The embedding map

- $e\; :\; X\; to\; prod\_\{Uin\; mathcal\{T\}(X)\}S\; =\; S^\{mathcal\{T\}(X)\}$

- $e(x)\_U\; =\; chi\_U(x).,$

In algebraic geometry the Sierpiński space arises as the spectrum, Spec(R), of a discrete valuation ring R such as Z_{(2)} (the localization of the integers at the prime ideal generated by 2). The generic point of Spec(R), coming from the zero ideal, corresponds to the open point 1, while the special point of Spec(R), coming from the unique maximal ideal, corresponds to the closed point 0.

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Last updated on Thursday August 14, 2008 at 13:23:26 PDT (GMT -0700)

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Last updated on Thursday August 14, 2008 at 13:23:26 PDT (GMT -0700)

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