clostridium parabotulinum

Clostridium

[klo-strid-ee-uhm]
Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the Firmicutes. They are obligate anaerobes capable of producing endospores. Individual cells are rod-shaped, which gives them their name, from the Greek kloster (κλωστήρ) or spindle. These characteristics traditionally defined the genus, but they are not phylogenetically significant; many species originally classified as Clostridium have been reclassified in other genera.

Pathology

Clostridium includes common free-living bacteria as well as important pathogens. There are four main species responsible for disease in humans:

Honey sometimes contains Clostridium botulinum bacteria, which may cause infant botulism in humans one year old and under. The bacteria produce botulinum toxin, which eventually paralyzes the infant's breathing muscles.

C. sordellii has been linked to the deaths of more than a dozen women after childbirth.

Commercial uses

C. thermocellum can utilize lignocellulosic waste and generate ethanol, thus making it a possible candidate for use in ethanol production. It also has no oxygen requirement and is thermophilic, reducing cooling cost.

C. acetobutylicum, also known as the Weizmann organism, was first used by Chaim Weizmann to produce acetone and biobutanol from starch in 1916 for the production of gunpowder and TNT.

The anaerobic bacterium C. ljungdahlii, recently discovered in commercial chicken wastes, can produce ethanol from single-carbon sources including synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be generated from the partial combustion of either fossil fuels or biomass. Use of these bacteria to produce ethanol from synthesis gas has progressed to the pilot plant stage at the BRI Energy facility in Fayetteville, Arkansas.

Genes from C. thermocellum have been inserted into transgenic mice to allow the production of endoglucanase. The experiment was intended to learn more about how the digestive capacity of monogastric animals could be improved. Hall et al. published their findings in 1993.

Non-pathogenic strains of clostridia may help in the treatment of diseases such as cancer. Research shows that clostridia can selectively target cancer cells. Some strains can enter and replicate within solid tumours. Clostridia could therefore be used to deliver therapeutic proteins to tumours. This use of Clostridia has been demonstrated in a variety of preclinical models.

References

External links

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