Cleomenes III


(died 219 BC) Agiad Spartan king (r. 235–222). Seeking to institute social reforms, in 227 he canceled debts, redistributed land, and restored the training of youth. He abolished the ephors and introduced the patronomoi (board of six elders). His early attempts to weaken the Achaean League (from 229) were successful, but in 222 his army fell at Sellasia to a Macedonian force summoned by the league. He fled to Egypt, where he was imprisoned but escaped (219); having failed to stir up revolt in Alexandria, he committed suicide.

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(died 491 BC) Spartan king (519–491). An Agiad (descendant from the legendary founders of Sparta), he ruled jointly with Demaratus. In 510 he expelled the tyrant Hippias from Athens, then supported the oligarchic party against the democratic Cleisthenes and refused to help Athens combat Persia. His policies did much to solidify Sparta's position as the leading power in the Peloponnesus. He bribed the oracle at Delphi to depose Demaratus, but he was discovered and fled. Though reinstated, he went insane and committed suicide.

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