Clarice Lispector (December 10 1920 - December 9 1977) was a Brazilian writer. Acclaimed internationally for her innovative novels and short stories, she was also a journalist and a translator. A legendary figure in Brazil, renowned for her mystical writings, her great personal beauty--the American translator Gregory Rabassa recalled being "flabbergasted to meet that rare person who looked like Marlene Dietrich and wrote like Virginia Woolf,--and her eccentric personality, she is now considered (with João Guimarães Rosa) one of the two most outstanding Brazilian prose writers of the twentieth century.
Born to a Jewish family in Podolia in what is today Ukraine, Clarice Lispector emigrated as an infant, amidst the disasters engulfing her native land following the First World War. She grew up in northeastern Brazil, where her mother died when she was nine. The family moved to Rio de Janeiro when she was in her teens. While in law school in Rio she began publishing her first journalistic work and short stories, catapulting to fame at age 23 with the publication of her first novel, Near to the Wild Heart, written as an interior monologue in a style and language that was considered revolutionary in Brazil.
She left Brazil in 1944, following her marriage to a Brazilian diplomat, and spent the next decade and a half in Europe and the United States. Upon return to Rio de Janeiro in 1959, she began producing her most famous works, including the stories of Family Ties and the great mystic novel The Passion According to G.H.. Wounded in an accident in 1966, she spent the last decade of her life in frequent pain, steadily writing and publishing novels and stories until her premature death in 1977.
Though her books were often reputed to be difficult or hermetic during her lifetime, her fame and reputation have not ceased to increase since her death. She is the subject of innumerable books, and references to her and her work are common in Brazilian literature and music. Several of her works have been turned into films. One group of her fans, on the Brazilian social-networking site Orkut, has 174,386 members.
Early life and emigration
Chaya Lispector was born in Chechelnyk
, a shtetl
in what is today Ukraine
. She was the youngest of three daughters of Pinkhas Lispector and Mania Krimgold Lispector. Her family suffered terribly during the pogroms
at the time when Ukrainians were committing pogroms against Jews that followed the dissolution of the Russian Empire
and the Russian Civil War
, circumstances later dramatized by her older sister Elisa Lispector
's autobiographical novel No exílio
, 1948). They eventually managed to escape to Romania
. In Bucharest
, they were issued a passport for Brazil
, where her mother Mania had relatives. They sailed from Hamburg
and arrived in Brazil in the early months of 1922, when Chaya was little more than a year old.
In Northeastern Brazil
The Lispectors changed their names upon arrival. Pinkhas became Pedro; Mania became Marieta; Leah became Elisa
, and Chaya became Clarice. Only the middle daughter, Tania, (April 19
- November 15
), kept her name. They first settled in the small northeastern city of Maceió
. After three years, during which Marieta's health deteriorated rapidly, they moved to the larger city of Recife
, settling in the Jewish neighborhood of Boa Vista.
In Recife, where her father continued to struggle economically, her mother finally died on September 21, 1930, at age forty-two. Clarice was nine years old. She attended the Colégio Hebreo-Idisch-Brasileiro, which taught Hebrew and Yiddish in addition to the usual subjects. In 1932, she gained admission to the Ginásio Pernambucano, then the most prestigious secondary school in the state. A year later, she "consciously claimed the desire to write,, under much influence from Hermann Hesse's Steppenwolf.
In Rio de Janeiro
In 1935, Pedro Lispector decided to move with his daughters to the then-capital, Rio de Janeiro
, where he hoped to find more economic opportunity. The family lived in the neighborhood of São Cristóvão
, north of downtown Rio, before moving to Tijuca
. In 1937, she entered the Law School of the University of Brazil
, then the most prestigious institution of higher learning in the country. Her first known story, "Triunfo," was published in the magazine Pan
on May 25, 1940. Soon afterwards, on August 26
, as a result of a botched gall-bladder operation, her beloved father died, age 55.
While still in law school, Clarice began working as a journalist, first at the official government press service the Agência Nacional and then at the important newspaper A Noite. There she came into contact with the younger generation of Brazilian writers, including Lúcio Cardoso, with whom she fell in love. Cardoso was homosexual, however, and she soon began seeing a law school colleague named Maury Gurgel Valente, who had entered the Brazilian Foreign Service, known as Itamaraty. In order to marry a diplomat, she had to be naturalized, which she did as soon as she came of age. On January 12, 1943, she was granted Brazilian citizenship. Eleven days later she married Maury.
Near to the Wild Heart
In December 1943, she published her first novel, Perto do coração selvagem
(Near to the Wild Heart
). The novel, which tells of the inner life of a young woman named Joana, caused a sensation. In October 1944, the book won the prestigious Graça Aranha Prize for the best debut novel of 1943. One critic, the poet Lêdo Ivo
, called it "the greatest novel a woman has ever written in the Portuguese language.” Another wrote that Clarice had “shifted the center of gravity around which the Brazilian novel had been revolving for about twenty years.” “Clarice Lispector’s work appears in our literary world as the most serious attempt at the introspective novel,” wrote the São Paulo critic Sérgio Milliet
. “For the first time, a Brazilian author goes beyond simple approximation in this almost virgin field of our literature; for the first time, an author penetrates the depths of the psychological complexity of the modern soul.”
When the novel was published, many claimed that her stream-of-consciousness writing style was heavily influenced by Virginia Woolf or James Joyce, but she had read neither of these authors. The title, and the epigraph from Joyce, were suggested by Lúcio Cardoso. This novel, like all of her subsequent works, was marked by an intense focus on interior emotional states.
Belém do Pará
Shortly afterwards, Clarice and Maury left Rio for the northern city of Belém do Pará
, at the mouth of the Amazon
. There, Maury served as a liaison between the Foreign Ministry and the international visitors who were using northern Brazil as a military base in World War II
Europe and the United States
On July 29
, Clarice left Brazil for the first time since she had arrived as a child, destined for Naples
, where Maury was posted to the Brazilian Consulate. Naples
was the staging ground for the Brazilian troops of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force
who were fighting on the Allied
side against the Nazis
. She worked at the hospital in Naples taking care of wounded Brazilian troops. In Rome
, she met the Italian
poet Giuseppe Ungaretti
, who translated parts of Near to the Wild Heart
, and had her portrait painted by Giorgio de Chirico
In Naples she completed her second novel, O Lustre (The Chandelier, 1946), which like the first focused on the interior life of a girl, this time one named Virgínia. This longer and more difficult book also met with an enthusiastic critical reception, though its impact was less sensational than Near to the Wild Heart. “Possessed of an enormous talent and a rare personality, she will have to suffer, fatally, the disadvantages of both, since she so amply enjoys their benefits,” wrote Gilda de Souza e Mello.
After a short visit to Brazil in 1946, Clarice and Maury returned to Europe in April 1946, where Maury was posted to the embassy in Berne
. This was a time of considerable boredom and frustration for Lispector, who was often depressed. “This Switzerland,” she wrote her sister Tania, “is a cemetery of sensations.” Her son Pedro Gurgel Valente was born in Berne
on September 10
, and in the city she wrote her third novel, A cidade sitiada
(The Besieged City
The Besieged City
The book Lispector wrote in Berne, The Besieged City
, tells the story of Lucrécia Neves, and the growth of her town, São Geraldo, from a little settlement to a large city. The book, which is full of metaphors of vision and seeing, met with a tepid reception and was “perhaps the least loved of Clarice Lispector’s novels,” according to a close friend of Lispector's. Sérgio Milliet concluded that “the author succumbs beneath the weight of her own richness.” And the Portuguese critic João Gaspar Simões wrote: “Its hermeticism has the texture of the hermeticism of dreams. May someone find the key.”
After leaving Switzerland in 1949 and spending almost a year in Rio, Clarice and Maury Gurgel Valente traveled to Torquay
, where Maury was a delegate to the on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT). They remained in England
from September, 1950, until March, 1951. Lispector liked England, though she suffered a miscarriage on a visit to London
In 1952, back in Rio
, where the family would stay about a year, Lispector published a short volume of six stories called Alguns contos
) in a small edition sponsored by the Ministry of Education and Health. These stories formed the core of the later Laços de família
), 1961. She also worked under the pseudonym Teresa Quadros as a women's columnist at the short-lived newspaper Comício
In September, 1952, the family moved to Washington, D.C.
, where they would live until June 1959. They bought a house at 4421 Ridge Street in the suburb of Chevy Chase
. On February 10
, her second son Paulo was born. She grew close to the Brazilian writer Érico Veríssimo
, then working for the Organization of American States
, and his wife Mafalda, as well as to the wife of the ambassador, Alzira Vargas do Amaral Peixoto
, daughter of the former Brazilian dictator Getúlio Vargas
. She also began publishing her stories in the new magazine Senhor
, back in Rio. But she was increasingly discontented with the diplomatic milieu. “I hated it, but I did what I had to […] I gave dinner parties, I did everything you’re supposed to do, but with a disgust …” She increasingly missed her sisters and Brazil, and in June, 1959, she left her husband and returned with her sons to Rio de Janeiro
, where she would spend the rest of her life.
Final years in Rio de Janeiro
In Brazil, Lispector struggled financially and tried to find a publisher for the novel she had completed in Washington several years before, as well as for her book of stories, Laços de família.
) This book incorporated the six stories of Some Stories
along with seven new stories, some of which had been published in Senhor
. It was published in 1960. The book, her friend Fernando Sabino
wrote her, was “exactly, sincerely, indisputably, and even humbly, the best book of stories ever published in Brazil.” And Érico Veríssimo
said: “I haven’t written about your book of stories out of sheer embarrassment to tell you what I think of it. Here goes: the most important story collection published in this country since Machado de Assis
,” Brazil’s classic novelist.
The Apple in the Dark
A Maçã no escuro
(The Apple in the Dark
), which she had begun in Torquay
, had been ready since 1956 but was repeatedly rejected by publishers, to Lispector's despair. Her longest novel and perhaps her most complex, it was finally published in 1961 by the same house that had published Family Ties
, the Livraria Francisco Alves
in São Paulo
. Driven by interior dialogue rather than by plot, its purported subject is a man called Martim, who believes he has killed his wife and flees deep into the Brazilian interior, where he finds work as a farm laborer. The real concerns of the highly allegorical novel are language and creation. In 1962, the work was awarded the Carmen Dolores Barbosa Prize for the best novel of the previous year. Around this time she began a relationship with the poet Paulo Mendes Campos
, an old friend. Mendes Campos was married and the relationship did not endure.
The Passion According to G.H. and The Foreign Legion
In 1964, she published one of her most shocking and famous books, A paixão segundo G.H.
, about a woman who, in the maid's room of her comfortable Rio penthouse, endures a mystical experience that leads to her eating part of a cockroach. In the same year, she published another book of stories and miscellany, The Foreign Legion
On September 14, 1966, she suffered a terrible accident in her apartment. After taking a sleeping pill, she fell asleep in her bed with a lit cigarette. She was badly wounded and her right hand almost had to be amputated.
The next year, she published her first children's book, O Mistério do coelho pensante, (The Mystery of the Thinking Rabbit, 1967), a translation of a book she had written in Washington, in English, for her son Paulo. In August, 1967, she began writing a weekly column ("crônica") for the Jornal do Brasil, an important Rio newspaper, which greatly expanded her fame beyond the intellectual and artistic circles that had long admired her. These pieces were later collected in the postumous work A Descoberta do mundo (The Discovery of the World, 1984).
The Woman Who Killed the Fish and An Apprenticeship or The Book of Pleasures
In 1968, Lispector participated in the political demonstrations against Brazil's hardening military dictatorship, and also published two books: her second work for children, A Mulher que matou os peixes
(The Woman Who Killed the Fish
), in which the narrator, Clarice, confesses to having forgotten to feed her son's fish; and her first novel since G.H., Uma Aprendizagem ou O Livro dos Prazeres
, a love story between a primary teacher, Lóri, and a philosophy teacher, Ulisses. The book drew on her writings in her newspaper columns. She also intensified her journalistic activity, conducting interviews for the glossy magazine Manchete
Covert Joy and Água viva
In 1971, Lispector published another book of stories, Felicidade clandestina
, (Covert Joy
), several of which hearkened back to memories of her childhood in Recife
. She began working on the book that many would consider her finest, Água viva
, though she struggled to complete it. Olga Borelli, a former nun who entered her life around this time and became her faithful assistant and friend, recalled: When the book came out in 1973, it was instantly acclaimed as a masterpiece. “With this fiction,” one critic wrote, “Clarice Lispector awakens the literature currently being produced in Brazil from a depressing and degrading lethargy and elevates it to a level of universal perennity and perfection.”
Where Were You at Night and ''The Via-Crucis of the Body
In 1974, Lispector published two books of stories, Onde estivestes de noite
(Where Were You at Night
)-which focuses in part on the lives of aging women-and A Via Crucis do corpo
(The Via-Crucis of the Body
). Though her previous books had often taken her years to complete, the latter was written in three days, after a challenge from her publisher, Álvaro Pacheco
, to write three stories about themes relating to sex. Part of the reason she wrote so much may have had to do with her having been unexpectedly fired from the Jornal do Brasil
at the end of 1973, which put her under increasing financial pressure. She began to paint and intensified her activity as a translator, publishing translations of Agatha Christie
, Oscar Wilde
, and Edgar Allan Poe
. And in 1975 she was invited to the First World Congress of Sorcery in Bogotá
, an event which garnered wide press coverage and increased her notoriety. At the conference, her story "The Egg and the Hen", first published in The Foreign Legion
, was read in English.
A Breath of Life and The Hour of the Star
Lispector worked on a book called Um sopro de vida: pulsações
(A Breath of Life: Pulsations
) that would be published posthumously in the mid-1970s. The book consists of a dialogue between an "Author" and his creation, Angela Pralini, a character whose name was borrowed from a character in a story in Where Were You at Night
. She used this fragmentary form for her final and perhaps most famous novel, A Hora da estrela
(The Hour of the Star
, 1977), piecing the story together, with the help of Olga Borelli, from notes scrawled on loose bits of paper. The Hour of the Star
tells the story of Macabéa, one of the iconic characters in Brazilian literature, a starving, poor typist from Alagoas
, the state where Lispector's family first arrived, lost in the metropolis of Rio de Janeiro
. Macabéa's name refers to the Maccabees
, and is one of the very few overtly Jewish references in Lispector's work. Its explicit focus on Brazilian poverty and marginality was also new.
Shortly after The Hour of the Star was published, Lispector was admitted to the hospital. She had inoperable ovarian cancer, though she was not told the diagnosis. She died on the eve of her 57th birthday and was buried on December 11, 1977, at the Jewish Cemetery of Cajú, Rio de Janeiro.
- Perto do Coração Selvagem (1943) - Near to the Wild Heart
- O Lustre (1946) - The Chandelier
- A Cidade Sitiada (1949) - The Besieged City
- A Maçã no Escuro (1961) The Apple in the Dark
- A Paixão segundo G.H. (1964) - The Passion According to G.H.
- Uma Aprendizagem ou O Livro dos Prazeres (1969) - An Apprenticeship or the Book of Pleasures
- Água Viva (1973) - The Stream of Life
- A hora da Estrela (1977) - The Hour of the Star
- Um Sopro de Vida (1978) - A Breath of Life
- Alguns contos (1952) - Some Stories
- Laços de família (1960) - Family Ties. Includes works previously published in Alguns Contos.
- A Legião estrangeira (1964) - The Foreign Legion
- Felicidade clandestina (1971) - Covert Joy
- A imitação da rosa (1973) - The Imitation of the Rose. Includes previously published material.
- A Via-crucis do corpo (1974) - The Stations of the Body
- Onde estivestes de noite (1974) - Where Were You at Night
- Para não esquecer (1978) - Not to Forget
- A Bela e a fera (1979) - Beauty and the Beast
- O Mistério do Coelho Pensante (1967) - The Mystery of the Thinking Rabbit
- A mulher que matou os peixes (1968) - The Woman Who Killed the Fish
- A Vida Íntima de Laura (1974) - Laura's Intimate Life
- Quase de verdade (1978) - Almost True
- Como nasceram as estrelas: Doze lendas brasileiras (1987) - How the Stars were Born: Twelve Brazilian Legends
Journalism and other shorter writings
- A Descoberta do Mundo (1984) - The Discovery of the World. Lispector's newspaper columns in the Jornal do Brasil.
- Visão do esplendor (1975) - Vision of Splendor
- De corpo inteiro (1975) - With the Whole Body. Lispector's interviews with famous personalities.
- Aprendendo a viver (2004) – Learning to Live. A selection of columns from The Discovery of the World.
- Outros escritos (2005) – Other Writings. Diverse texts including interviews and stories.
- Correio feminino (2006) – Ladies' Mail. Selection of Lispector's texts, written pseudonymously, for Brazilian women's pages.
- Entrevistas (2007) – Interviews.
- Cartas perto do coração (2001) - Letters near the Heart. Letters exchanged with Fernando Sabino.
- Correspondências (2002) - Correspondence
- Minhas queridas (2007) – My dears. Letters exchanged with her sisters Elisa Lispector and Tania Lispector Kaufmann.
- Efraín Kristal, The Cambridge Companion to the Latin American Novel, Cambridge University Press (2005), ISBN 0521825334 - includes a chapter on The Passion According to G.H.
- Earl E. Fitz, Sexuality and Being in the Poststructuralist Universe of Clarice Lispector: The Différance of Desire, University of Texas Press (2001), ISBN 0292725299