The Hall Probe is a device that is used to measure magnetic field. It contains an indium compound crystal mounted on an aluminium backing plate, and encapsulated in the probe head. The plane of the crystal is perpendicular to the probe handle. Connecting leads from the crystal are brought down through the handle to the circuit box.
When the Hall Probe is held so that the magnetic field lines are passing at right angles through the sensor of the probe, the meter gives a reading of the value of magnetic flux density (B). A current is passed through the crystal which, when placed in a magnetic field has a “Hall Effect” voltage developed across it. The Hall Effect is seen when a conductor is passed through a uniform magnetic field. The natural electron drift of the charge carriers causes the magnetic field to apply a Lorentz force (the force exerted on a charged particle in an electromagnetic field) to these charge carriers. The result is what is seen as a charge separation, with a build up of either positive or negative charges on the bottom or on the top of the plate. The crystal measures 5 mm square. The probe handle, being made of a non-ferrous material, has no disturbing effect on the field.
A Hall Probe is sensitive enough to measure the Earth's magnetic field. It must be held so that the Earth's field lines are passing directly through it. It is then rotated quickly so the field lines pass through the sensor in the opposite direction. The change in the flux density reading is double the Earth's magnetic flux density. A hall probe must first be calibrated against a known value of magnetic field strength. For a solenoid the hall probe is placed in the centre.